Links describing the use of water in fracking a well, including amounts, acquisition and transportation
- - 1353 - [December 23, 2013] - Time Magazine, Bryan Walsh - "Fracking for Natural Gas May Help Us Save Water"
- "Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas is a water-intensive process—as critics love to point out. But by enabling the switch from thirsty coal to more efficient natural gas, fracking could be good for water scarcity.
When it comes to hydrofracking, it’s the fracturing that gets a lot of the attention, but in fact it’s the hydro part of that is particularly troublesome. Even if fears over the contamination of groundwater supplies with toxic frac water can be overblown, environmentalists argue that hydrofracking simply uses too much water—especially in arid drilling regions like Texas. Between 4 and 6 million gallons (15 to 23 million liters) of water is used every time a gas or oil well is fracked, and with the energy boom booming, that can add up to a lot of water, as Hillary Hylton noted in a piece for TIME earlier this year."
- - 1419 - [June 13, 2013] - Energy.gov - Office of Fossil Energy, energy.gov - "Produced Water R&D"
- "Drilling and fracturing wells produce water along with the natural gas. Some of this water is returned fracture fluid and some is natural formation water. The actual water production of a particular well depends on the well location, producing formation and the age of the well. The quality of the produced water is also dependent on local variables. For example, the type of produced water in some Rocky Mountain Basins varies from fresh to brackish. At the other extreme, produced waters in areas such as the Appalachian Basin and Michigan Basin may be 5 to 10 times saltier than seawater. Produced water may also contain small amounts of chemicals injected into a well as part of a hydraulic fracture or to prevent well clogging by scale or bacteria.
Almost all produced water is injected underground. The remainder is treated for reuse or discharged on the surface. The Office of Fossil Energy focuses its produced water program on analysis of regulatory decision making and treatment for beneficial reuse."
- - 1423 - [NA] - ALLConsulting, ALLConsulting - "Project Website for: Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool"
- "The Shale Gas Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool provides information on the water treatment technologies applicable to shale gas development and provides tools to assist operators in selecting the treatments that best fit their situation. The information provided is specific to the Barnett, Fayetteville, Haynesville, Marcellus, and Woodford shale plays, but provides information that would be generally applicable to other shale gas plays as well."
- - 1431 - [March 11, 2008] - The Colubus Dispatch, Spencer Hunt - "Sites sought for region’s fracking residue"
- "Battelle scientists are leading a search for sites where companies can pump fracking waste underground in Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
The two-year project, funded by a $1.8 million U.S. Department of Energy grant, is a response to the growing amount of polluted wastewater that bubbles out of fracked shale wells. Millions of barrels of the waste are pumped into disposal wells, many of which are in Ohio."
- - 1433 - [February 16, 2015] - Environmental Science & Tecchnology, B. R. Scanlon, R. C. Reedy, and J.-P. Nicot - "Comparison of Water Use for Hydraulic Fracturing for Unconventional Oil and Gas versus Conventional Oil"
- "We compared water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) for oil versus gas production within the Eagle Ford shale. We then compared HF water use for Eagle Ford oil with Bakken oil, both plays accounting for two-thirds of U.S. unconventional oil production in 2013. In the Eagle Ford, we found similar average water use in oil and gas zones per well (4.7−4.9 × 106 gallons [gal]/well). However, about twice as much water is used per unit of energy (water-to-oil ratio, WOR, vol water/vol oil) in the oil zone (WOR: 1.4) as in the gas zone (water-to-oil-equivalent-ratio, WOER: 0.6). We also found large differences in water use for oil between the two plays, with mean Bakken water use/well (2.0 × 106 gal/well) about half that in the Eagle Ford, and a third per energy unit."
- - 1440 - [March 8, 2015] - Cornell University - College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Brian G. Rahm and Susan J. Riha - "Toward strategic management of shale gas development: Regional, collective impacts on water resources"
- "Shale gas resources are relatively plentiful in the United States and in many countries and regions around the world. Development of these resources is moving ahead amidst concerns regarding environmental risks, especially to water resources. The complex nature of this distributed extractive industry, combined with limited impact data, makes establishing possible effects and designing appropriate regulatory responses challenging. Here we move beyond the project level impact assessment approach to use regional collective impact analysis in order to assess a subset of potential water management policy options. Specifically, we examine hypothetical water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing and the subsequent treatment of wastewater that could be returned or produced from future active shale gas wells in the currently undeveloped Susquehanna River Basin region of New York."
- - 1441 - [December 4, 2012] - Clear Waters, Susan J. Riha and Brian G. Rahm - "Framework for Assessing Water Resource Impacts from Shale Gas Drilling"
- "In 2009,23 percent of total energy, including 40 percent of electricity, consumed in the United States was derived from natural gas. About 88 percent was produced within the United States (with most of the remainder coming from Canada). Since 2007, the proportion of domestic gas supplies from shale has steadily increased and is expected to continue to increase, relieving the need to meet demand in the near future with imports. The Marcellus Shale, which is a geologic formation found under much of southern New York, may contain more recoverable natural gas than any other shale formation in the United States. Recoverable reserves of natural gas in the Marcellus was estimated in one study to be more than 20 times the total amount consumed in the United States in 2009."
- - 1460 - [January 10, 2014] - HUFF Post Green, Merc Levy - "Pennsylvania Governor Wolf Advances Tougher Gas Drilling Rules"
- "A forthcoming proposal to toughen regulations for the Marcellus Shale natural gas drilling industry will target how it stores waste, dampens noise and affects public water resources, schools and playgrounds, state environmental regulators said Monday.
The proposal is the first signal from Gov. Tom Wolf's administration of how it will approach the natural gas industry after the Democrat campaigned last year on a promise to toughen state regulation of the industry. He also is seeking lawmakers' approval of higher taxes on booming natural gas production to boost aid to public schools."
- - 1471 - [May 8, 2012] - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stephen G. Osborna, Avner Vengoshb, Nathaniel R. Warnerb, and Robert B. Jacksona - "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing"
- "Directional drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies are dramatically increasing natural-gas extraction. In aquifers overlying the Marcellus and Utica shale formations of northeastern Pennsylvania and upstate New York, we document systematic evidence for methane contamination of drinking water associated with shale-gas extraction. In active gas-extraction areas (one or more gas wells within 1 km), average and maximum methane concentrations in drinking-water wells increased with proximity to the nearest gas well and were 19.2 and 64 mg CH4 L-1 (n = 26), a potential explosion hazard; in contrast, dissolved methane samples in neighboring non-extraction sites (no gas wells within 1 km) within similar geologic formations and hydrogeologic regimes averaged only 1.1 mg L-1 (P < 0.05; n = 34). Average δ13C-CH4 values of dissolved methane in shallow groundwater were significantly less negative for active than for nonactive sites (-37 ± 7‰ and -54 ± 11‰, respectively; P < 0.0001). These δ13C-CH4 data, coupled with the ratios of methane-to-higher-chain hydrocarbons, and δ2H-CH4 values, are consistent with deeper thermogenic methane sources such as the Marcellus and Utica shales at the active sites and matched gas geochemistry from gas wells nearby. In contrast, lower-concentration samples from shallow groundwater at nonactive sites had isotopic signatures reflecting a more biogenic or mixed biogenic/thermogenic methane source. We found no evidence for contamination of drinking-water samples with deep saline brines or fracturing fluids. We conclude that greater stewardship, data, and—possibly—regulation are needed to ensure the sustainable future of shale-gas extraction and to improve public confidence in its use. "
- - 1472 - [January 13, 2011] - OilPrice, Colin Chilcoat - "An Emerging Cure For Fracking Wastewater"
- "As shale plays in the US boom and bust – the rig count is down again – one thing remains relatively unchanged: fracking is a dirty business. That doesn’t mean it can’t improve, however. Low prices have put pressure on the rapid development of tertiary, or enhanced, recovery methods, but greener, more environmentally friendly innovations could soon pay dividends.
Water is the problem, and the scope is huge. Not water in general – on a gallon/MMBtu basis, water consumption for hydraulic fracturing actually ranks below both coal and ethanol production. Instead, what’s left is the issue
- - 1473 - [March 9, 2015] - OilPrice, James Stafford - "Texas: From Shale Boom To Water Revolution"
- "Texas is famous the world over for two things on a massive scale: oil and droughts. Now the slick but dry state is becoming famous for water: that precious element that both resolves the drought problem and also makes it possible to pump more oil out of the ground.
Not only does Texas have the Permian Basin and the Eagle Ford shale, but it also has the Gulf of Mexico and its massive oil deposits and endless gallons of seawater that are now economically treatable thanks to next generation water processing technology.
As NASA predicts a decades-long ‘mega drought’ later this century, next generation water processing technology coming from within the oil industry promises not only to help solve Texas’ drought problem by accessing and desalinating brackish and slightly salty water sources deep under the dry Texan surface, but to go one step further by desalinating ocean water and turning dirty water into potable water.
First, microbes are introduced into the wastewater, which feed on the organic contaminants and release their inherent energy. The energy is then used to create an electric current between positively and negatively charged electrodes. Once live, the electrodes attract the dissolved salt, trapping it on their surface. It does not end there, however. Besides preparing the wastewater for reuse, the battery also creates a surplus of energy that could be used to run equipment on site. Traditional treatment methods are net users of electricity and not providers."
- - 1474 - [March 12, 2015] - Oil Gas Daily, Staff Writers - "Making treatment of oil and gas wastewater simpler, cheaper"
- "Earthquakes are a rarity in Youngstown, Ohio but the holidays saw just such excitement as residents experienced two earthquakes, which registered 2.7 and 4.0 on the Richter scale. The earthquakes resulted in no casualties and relatively minor damage, but the historical paucity of earthquakes in the region has led officials to question nearby fracking operations. Hydraulic fracturing, fracking, is a process of drilling for natural gas which has stirred up controversy between environmental and scientific groups—which question its safety—and pro-business groups—which support the economic benefits of recovering potentially massive quantities of natural gas. This week, Politics & Policy will attempt to sort through the controversy, explain exactly what fracking is and whether it is truly as dangerous as some critics have suggested."
- - 1477 -  - BloomBergBusiness, Jim Efstathiou Jr - "Fracking Fluids May Migrate to Aquifers, Researcher Says"
- "Chemically treated drilling fluid can migrate through thousands of feet of rock and endanger water supplies, said a hydrologist whose research calls into question the safety of hydraulic fracturing for natural gas.
The fluids can migrate faster that previously thought, Tom Myers, a Reno, Nevada, researcher, said yesterday. His study, published in the online journal Ground Water on April 17, says fluids can reach shallow drinking-water aquifers in as little as three years."
- - 1562 - [November 29, 2013] - About Money, Wendy Lyons Sunshine - "Waste Water Byproducts of Shale Gas Drilling"
- "During hydrofracking, millions of gallons of water mixed with industrial chemicals and proppant (sand or ceramic particles) are blasted into the well bore to release natural gas. In the Marcellus Shale formation in the northeastern
U.S., for example, fracking a single well can require 1 million to 5 million gallons of this water mixture.
Waste water that comes back up out of a shale gas well goes by two names: flowback and produced water. These terms are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings"
- - 1564 - [NA] - About News, Frederic Beaudry - "Natural Gas Fracking: What Happens to the Waste Water?"
- "...The fracking process involves the use of large amounts of water, on average 3 to 5 million gallons of water per well. In the Marcellus shale formation, an average of 430,000 gallons of waste water comes back out of the well. This waste water consists of flowback water, which is of similar composition as the water and chemical cocktail pumped down, and of produced water, which contains the brine that was in the shale formation. So in addition to the fracking chemicals, this waste water contains high concentrations of salt, heavy metals like lead, arsenic, and strontium, and sometimes radioactive elements like uranium, radium, and radon."
- - 1566 - [NA] - About News, Frederic Beaudry - "Natural Gas Fracking and the Environment: Water Use"
- "...Fracking’s high need for freshwater often raises flags for neighboring residents, as people are increasingly concerned about drinking water safety and availability.
The fracking process involves the use of water to lubricate the drill bit as it bores the well, to carry drill cuttings
out of the well, and then later, under very high pressure, to crack the shale rock and release the natural gas. This last role requires 3 to 5 million gallons of water per well."
- - 1570 - [March 24, 2015] - Audebon, Tessa Stuart - "Big Oil:s Best-Kept Secret"
- "To keep itself off the Toxics Release Inventory, the fossil fuel industry might have a new trick up its sleeve—putting state attorneys general on the payroll.
By now most of us have a basic grasp of the way fracking works: Pumps shoot a high-pressure cocktail of water, silt, and chemicals hundreds of feet underground, shattering ancient rock and releasing pockets of natural gas, a whole lot of money, and a brew of toxic byproducts. What we don’t know is exactly how much of which toxins are collecting in the soil, seeping into groundwater, or wafting into nearby communities. Fossil fuel companies have kept it that way, with help from governors, congressmen, senators, and, increasingly, state attorneys general."
- - 1590 - [October 16, 2014] - The Province, Dan Fumano, The Province - "Outrage boils over as B.C. government plans to sell groundwater for $2.25 per million litres"
- "More than 82,000 people have signed a petition against the government’s plans to sell B.C.’s water for $2.25 per million litres.
“It is outrageous,” says the online petition from SumOfUs.org, that corporations can buy water “for next to nothing.”
B.C.’s Water Sustainability Act (WSA), which comes into effect next January and replaces the province’s century-old water legislation, has been heralded as a major step forward. But politicians and experts are raising doubts over whether the newly announced water fees may be too low to cover the cost of the program, asking if the act simply won’t be implemented properly, or if taxpayers could end up picking up the bill."
- - 1753 - [NA] - Pro Publica, Abrahm Lustgarten - "Officials in Three States Pin Water Woes on Gas Drilling"
- "Norma Fiorentino's drinking water well was a time bomb. For weeks, workers in her small northeastern Pennsylvania town had been plumbing natural gas deposits from a drilling rig a few hundred yards away. They cracked the earth and pumped in fluids to force the gas out. Somehow, stray gas worked into tiny crevasses in the rock, leaking upward into the aquifer and slipping quietly into Fiorentino's well. Then, according to the state's working theory, a motorized pump turned on in her well house, flicked a spark and caused a New Year's morning blast that tossed aside a concrete slab weighing several thousand pound."
- - 1754 - [April 26, 2009] - ExxonMobil Perspectives, Ken Cohen - "Facts on the hydraulic fracturing process"
- "A couple weeks ago, I pointed to a U.K. Parliamentary study that found that hydraulic fracturing – a method that’s enabling greater production of natural gas in shale and other formations – poses no more risk to the environment or water supplies than any other oil and gas production technique.
What’s most important about hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”), the study found, is ensuring that proper well design and water-handling procedures are rigorously applied at every well."
- - 1764 - [August 11, 2014] - Pro Publica, Abrahm Lustgarten - "Officials in Three States Pin Water Woes on Gas Drilling"
- "Norma Fiorentino's drinking water well was a time bomb. For weeks, workers in her small northeastern Pennsylvania town had been plumbing natural gas deposits from a drilling rig a few hundred yards away. They cracked the earth and pumped in fluids to force the gas out. Somehow, stray gas worked into tiny crevasses in the rock, leaking upward into the aquifer and slipping quietly into Fiorentino's well. Then, according to the state's working theory, a motorized pump turned on in her well house, flicked a spark and caused a New Year's morning blast that tossed aside a concrete slab weighing several thousand pounds."
- - 1798 - [April 29, 2015] - Energy in Depth, Tom Shepstone - "Turning Natural Gas Into Water: Hydraulic Fracturing Doesn’t Deplete Water Supplies"
- "One of the least understood impacts of natural gas development is its impact on the water cycle. We often hear about how much water is required to hydraulically fracture a well (as much as five million gallons) and how much of the water (as much 80%) stays underground. Many think this water is irretrievably lost, that is to say forever removed from the water cycle, because we are leaving it a mile or more underground. This is true, up to a point, but it’s far from the full story, because the combustion of natural gas yields water vapor that goes into the atmosphere, and a lots of it. It yields enough water, in fact, to more than replace what is lost in just a matter of months."
- - 1866 - [NA] - Marcellus.com, Danielle Wente | Shale Plays Media - "Waterless fracking test well isn’t doing so hot"
- "While the oil and gas industry was excited about the idea of waterless fracking and the environmental and health benefits that it would bring, it is sad to say the Ohio well testing waterless fracking isn’t exactly that bright light at the end of tunnel.
The $22 million test well operated by EV Energy Partners LP, along with eight other companies, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, has officially been producing for 90 days but didn’t quite meet expectations. Nettles, the test well, produced half the amount of oil that its neighboring well that used water produced. EV Energy Partners LP’s Chairman John Walker shared the information on Monday during an earning calls with analysts.
EV Energy’s Director Ken Mariani said that the costs of drilling a typical well in the Utica shale formation usually costs $6.5 million to $8 million. As Mariani explained, it is obvious that $22 million on one well is a lot of money."
- - 1946 - [June 5, 2015] - USGS, USGA - "Dissolved Methane in New York Groundwater"
- "New York State is underlain by numerous bedrock formations of Cambrian to Devonian age that produce natural gas and to a lesser extent oil. The first commercial gas well in the United States was dug in the early 1820s in Fredonia, south of Buffalo, New York, and produced methane from Devonian-age black shale. Methane naturally discharges to the land surface at some locations in New York."
- - 1954 - [June 8, 2015] - MarketWatch, Myra P. Saefong - "Why shale producers are happy with this EPA fracking study"
- "The energy industry agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — at least when it comes to the findings of an EPA study on hydraulic fracturing.
Michael Krancer, partner and chair of the energy industry team at law firm Blank Rome LLP, said a draft report on the EPA study shows that fracking is “safe,” with “no widespread issues.”
Here’s what the EPA draft report released last week officially says: “There are above- and below-ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources.” "
- - 1957 - [March 29, 2012] - MintPress News, MintPress News Desk - "How The Mainstream Media Whitewashed The EPA’s Fracking Study"
- "Several mitigating factors in the purported “landmark” investigation have been so blatantly and conspicuously ignored by mainstream press that it is arguable the true findings haven’t been disclosed at all.
The EPA released findings of its study on the impact of fracking on drinking water resources, but derelict reporting by corporate media has utterly failed the public. Several mitigating factors in the purported “landmark” investigation have been so blatantly and conspicuously ignored by mainstream press that it is arguable the true findings haven’t been disclosed at all."
- - 2012 - [April 4, 2011] - NRDC - Natural Resources Defense Council, NRDC - "Unchecked FrackingThreatens Health, Water Supplies"
- "Weak safeguards and inadequate oversight have allowed oil and gas producers to run roughshod over communities across the country with their extraction and production activities for too long, resulting in contaminated water supplies, dangerous air pollution, destroyed streams, and devastated landscapes. Our state and federal leaders have failed to hold them to account, leaving the American people unprotected. Many companies don't play by the few rules that do exist; and industry has used its political power at every turn to gain exemptions from environmental laws designed to protect our air and water."
- - 2034 - [June 15, 2015] - Environmental Action, Drew Hudson - "You Can't Trust the EPA on fracking"
- "The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) finally released their study on how fracking impacts drinking water. You’ll doubtless see headlines repeating the study’s main finding that fracking poses no “widespread” risk to drinking water. But even that summary is a lie, or at least a very misleading falsehood, and we’ll tell you why:
EPA-approved-flaming-waterThe first, and most important reason not to trust this study on fracking’s impact to drinking water: The EPA is a bunch of fracking liars. In July 2013, an investigative report in the Los Angeles Times revealed that EPA officials in Washington, D.C. chose to close an investigation of polluted drinking water in Pennsylvania despite evidence gathered from EPA investigators based in Philadelphia that found “significant damage to the water quality.”"
- - 2063 - [June 19, 2015] - Environmental Science & Technology, Zacariah Louis Hildenbrand, Doug D Carlton, Brian Fontenot, Jesse M. Meik, Jayme Walton, Josh Taylor, Jonathan Thacker, Stephanie Korlie, C. Phillip Shelor, Drew Henderson, Akinde Florence Kadjo, Corey Roelke, Paul F. Hudak, Taylour Burton, Hanadi S. Rifai, and Kevin A. Schug - "A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in The Barnett Shale Region"