Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage


Links describing the use of water in fracking a well, including amounts, acquisition and transportation

- 1081 - [October 15, 2014] - ScienceDaily, Dawn Fuller - "A unique approach to monitoring groundwater supplies near Ohio fracking sites"
"A University of Cincinnati research project is taking a groundbreaking approach to monitoring groundwater resources near fracking sites in Ohio. Claire
First launched in Carroll County in 2012, the GRO team of researchers is examining methane levels and origins of methane in private wells and springs before, during and after the onset of fracking. The team travels to the region to take water samples four times a year."
- 1087 - [October 7, 2014] - DESMOGBLOG.COM, Mike Gaworecki - "Confirmed: California Aquifers Contaminated With Billions Of Gallons of Fracking Wastewater"
"After California state regulators shut down 11 fracking wastewater injection wells last July over concerns that the wastewater might have contaminated aquifers used for drinking water and farm irrigation, the EPA ordered a report within 60 days.
It was revealed yesterday that the California State Water Resources Board has sent a letter to the EPA confirming that at least nine of those sites were in fact dumping wastewater contaminated with fracking fluids and other pollutants into aquifers protected by state law and the federal Safe Drinking Water Act."
- 1163 - [January 26, 2015] -, David Conti | The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review - "Long-term solution for wastewater disposal eludes shale gas industry"
"Defining wastewater disposal in the Marcellus shale fields has been a moving target.
Drillers initially sent millions of gallons to public water treatment plants, until regulators said the plants were not equipped to properly clean the salt- and metal-laden water that comes from shale gas wells. The traditional method of injecting it back into deep wells is less feasible in Pennsylvania, which has few such wells, and Ohio is accepting less wastewater because of potential links between injection and earthquakes."
- 1300 - [July 2010] - Oil & Natural Gas Technology, DOE Award No.: FWP 49462, John A. Veil - Argonne National Laboratory - "Water Management Technologies Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers"
"There is a great deal of interest in natural gas production in the Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus offers hope of substantial energy resources and economic benefits, but also creates various environmental and societal issues. This report describes three types of water issues that arise from shale gas development in the Marcellus Shale. Those three issues are:
1. Controlling the stormwater runoff from disturbed areas,
2. Obtaining sufficient freshwater supply to conduct frac jobs on new wells, and
3. Managing the flowback water and produced water from the well."
- 1326 - [January 2015] - The Allegheny Front, The Allegheny Front - "Why is Fracking Wastewater Radioactive?"
"An explainer about why the water used in fracking oil and natural gas from the ground is radioactive. And just where does that dirty, salty waste water go? It's fracking amazing."
- 1347 - [February 4, 2015] - Tulsa World, ZIVA BRANSTETTER World Enterprise Editor - "State orders injection well shut down after northwestern Oklahoma earthquake"
"Staff at the Oklahoma Corporation Commission directed that an injection well operated by SandRidge Energy be shut down Tuesday due to continuing earthquakes in Alfalfa County near the Kansas border.
The well is the second active wastewater injection well directed to “shut in” or halt operations by the agency since it began a new monitoring system in 2013."
- 1353 - [December 23, 2013] - Time Magazine, Bryan Walsh - "Fracking for Natural Gas May Help Us Save Water"
"Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas is a water-intensive process—as critics love to point out. But by enabling the switch from thirsty coal to more efficient natural gas, fracking could be good for water scarcity.
When it comes to hydrofracking, it’s the fracturing that gets a lot of the attention, but in fact it’s the hydro part of that is particularly troublesome. Even if fears over the contamination of groundwater supplies with toxic frac water can be overblown, environmentalists argue that hydrofracking simply uses too much water—especially in arid drilling regions like Texas. Between 4 and 6 million gallons (15 to 23 million liters) of water is used every time a gas or oil well is fracked, and with the energy boom booming, that can add up to a lot of water, as Hillary Hylton noted in a piece for TIME earlier this year."
- 1365 - [February 2014] - Department of Energy and Climate Change, Department of Energy and Climate Change - "Fracking UK shaelcO water"
"Hydraulic fracturing, known as fracking, is a technique used in the extraction of gas and oil from ‘shale’ rock formation s by injecting water at high pressure. This guide explains why some people worry this technique may use too much water or pollute it , and what government and others will do to manage the risks."
- 1378 - [February 15, 2014] - Ceres Mobilizing Businesss Leadership for a Sustainable World, Carolyn D. Heising | Des Moines Register - "Fracking's water use sets up fight with cities and farmers"
"It’s no secret that hydraulic fracturing in the production of oil and natural gas uses enormous amounts of water.
A single well requires between 2 and 10 million gallons of water — mixed with sand and chemicals — to crack rocks deep underground and release oil or natural gas. As a rule of thumb, it takes 1,000 truck trips to complete one hydraulically fractured well."
- 1410 - [NA] - eph | Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 122 | Issue 2 | February 2014, Valerie J. Brown - "Radionuclides in Fracking Wastewater: Managing a Toxic Blend"
"To date the drilling industry and regulators have considered the risk posed to workers and the public by radioactive waste to be minor. In Pennsylvania, Lisa Kasianowitz, an information specialist with the state Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP), says there is currently nothing to “indicate the public or workers face any health risk from exposure to radiation from these materials.” But given the wide gaps in the data, this is cold comfort to many in the public health community."
- 1419 - [June 13, 2013] - - Office of Fossil Energy, - "Produced Water R&D"
"Drilling and fracturing wells produce water along with the natural gas. Some of this water is returned fracture fluid and some is natural formation water. The actual water production of a particular well depends on the well location, producing formation and the age of the well. The quality of the produced water is also dependent on local variables. For example, the type of produced water in some Rocky Mountain Basins varies from fresh to brackish. At the other extreme, produced waters in areas such as the Appalachian Basin and Michigan Basin may be 5 to 10 times saltier than seawater. Produced water may also contain small amounts of chemicals injected into a well as part of a hydraulic fracture or to prevent well clogging by scale or bacteria.
Almost all produced water is injected underground. The remainder is treated for reuse or discharged on the surface. The Office of Fossil Energy focuses its produced water program on analysis of regulatory decision making and treatment for beneficial reuse."
- 1423 - [NA] - ALLConsulting, ALLConsulting - "Project Website for: Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool"
"The Shale Gas Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool provides information on the water treatment technologies applicable to shale gas development and provides tools to assist operators in selecting the treatments that best fit their situation. The information provided is specific to the Barnett, Fayetteville, Haynesville, Marcellus, and Woodford shale plays, but provides information that would be generally applicable to other shale gas plays as well."
- 1425 - [NA] - PBS NewsHour, Rebeccaa Jacobson - "Fracking brine leak in North Dakota reaches Missouri River, prompts state Democrats to call for more regulation"
"A pipeline leak near Williston, North Dakota, that began January 6 has spilled 3 million gallons of brine — a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing. The leak has reached the Missouri River.
It’s the largest saltwater spill in the state’s history. Brine is considered toxic; it is saltier than seawater and often contains other fracking fluids and petroleum."
- 1431 - [March 11, 2008] - The Colubus Dispatch, Spencer Hunt - "Sites sought for region’s fracking residue"
"Battelle scientists are leading a search for sites where companies can pump fracking waste underground in Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
The two-year project, funded by a $1.8 million U.S. Department of Energy grant, is a response to the growing amount of polluted wastewater that bubbles out of fracked shale wells. Millions of barrels of the waste are pumped into disposal wells, many of which are in Ohio."
- 1433 - [February 16, 2015] - Environmental Science & Tecchnology, B. R. Scanlon, R. C. Reedy, and J.-P. Nicot - "Comparison of Water Use for Hydraulic Fracturing for Unconventional Oil and Gas versus Conventional Oil"
"We compared water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) for oil versus gas production within the Eagle Ford shale. We then compared HF water use for Eagle Ford oil with Bakken oil, both plays accounting for two-thirds of U.S. unconventional oil production in 2013. In the Eagle Ford, we found similar average water use in oil and gas zones per well (4.7−4.9 × 106 gallons [gal]/well). However, about twice as much water is used per unit of energy (water-to-oil ratio, WOR, vol water/vol oil) in the oil zone (WOR: 1.4) as in the gas zone (water-to-oil-equivalent-ratio, WOER: 0.6). We also found large differences in water use for oil between the two plays, with mean Bakken water use/well (2.0 × 106 gal/well) about half that in the Eagle Ford, and a third per energy unit."
- 1440 - [March 8, 2015] - Cornell University - College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Brian G. Rahm and Susan J. Riha - "Toward strategic management of shale gas development: Regional, collective impacts on water resources"
"Shale gas resources are relatively plentiful in the United States and in many countries and regions around the world. Development of these resources is moving ahead amidst concerns regarding environmental risks, especially to water resources. The complex nature of this distributed extractive industry, combined with limited impact data, makes establishing possible effects and designing appropriate regulatory responses challenging. Here we move beyond the project level impact assessment approach to use regional collective impact analysis in order to assess a subset of potential water management policy options. Specifically, we examine hypothetical water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing and the subsequent treatment of wastewater that could be returned or produced from future active shale gas wells in the currently undeveloped Susquehanna River Basin region of New York."
- 1441 - [December 4, 2012] - Clear Waters, Susan J. Riha and Brian G. Rahm - "Framework for Assessing Water Resource Impacts from Shale Gas Drilling"
"In 2009,23 percent of total energy, including 40 percent of electricity, consumed in the United States was derived from natural gas. About 88 percent was produced within the United States (with most of the remainder coming from Canada). Since 2007, the proportion of domestic gas supplies from shale has steadily increased and is expected to continue to increase, relieving the need to meet demand in the near future with imports. The Marcellus Shale, which is a geologic formation found under much of southern New York, may contain more recoverable natural gas than any other shale formation in the United States. Recoverable reserves of natural gas in the Marcellus was estimated in one study to be more than 20 times the total amount consumed in the United States in 2009."
- 1460 - [January 10, 2014] - HUFF Post Green, Merc Levy - "Pennsylvania Governor Wolf Advances Tougher Gas Drilling Rules"
"A forthcoming proposal to toughen regulations for the Marcellus Shale natural gas drilling industry will target how it stores waste, dampens noise and affects public water resources, schools and playgrounds, state environmental regulators said Monday.
The proposal is the first signal from Gov. Tom Wolf's administration of how it will approach the natural gas industry after the Democrat campaigned last year on a promise to toughen state regulation of the industry. He also is seeking lawmakers' approval of higher taxes on booming natural gas production to boost aid to public schools."
- 1471 - [May 8, 2012] - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stephen G. Osborna, Avner Vengoshb, Nathaniel R. Warnerb, and Robert B. Jacksona - "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing"
"Directional drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies are dramatically increasing natural-gas extraction. In aquifers overlying the Marcellus and Utica shale formations of northeastern Pennsylvania and upstate New York, we document systematic evidence for methane contamination of drinking water associated with shale-gas extraction. In active gas-extraction areas (one or more gas wells within 1 km), average and maximum methane concentrations in drinking-water wells increased with proximity to the nearest gas well and were 19.2 and 64 mg CH4 L-1 (n = 26), a potential explosion hazard; in contrast, dissolved methane samples in neighboring non-extraction sites (no gas wells within 1 km) within similar geologic formations and hydrogeologic regimes averaged only 1.1 mg L-1 (P < 0.05; n = 34). Average δ13C-CH4 values of dissolved methane in shallow groundwater were significantly less negative for active than for nonactive sites (-37 ± 7‰ and -54 ± 11‰, respectively; P < 0.0001). These δ13C-CH4 data, coupled with the ratios of methane-to-higher-chain hydrocarbons, and δ2H-CH4 values, are consistent with deeper thermogenic methane sources such as the Marcellus and Utica shales at the active sites and matched gas geochemistry from gas wells nearby. In contrast, lower-concentration samples from shallow groundwater at nonactive sites had isotopic signatures reflecting a more biogenic or mixed biogenic/thermogenic methane source. We found no evidence for contamination of drinking-water samples with deep saline brines or fracturing fluids. We conclude that greater stewardship, data, and—possibly—regulation are needed to ensure the sustainable future of shale-gas extraction and to improve public confidence in its use. "
- 1472 - [January 13, 2011] - OilPrice, Colin Chilcoat - "An Emerging Cure For Fracking Wastewater"
"As shale plays in the US boom and bust – the rig count is down again – one thing remains relatively unchanged: fracking is a dirty business. That doesn’t mean it can’t improve, however. Low prices have put pressure on the rapid development of tertiary, or enhanced, recovery methods, but greener, more environmentally friendly innovations could soon pay dividends.
Water is the problem, and the scope is huge. Not water in general – on a gallon/MMBtu basis, water consumption for hydraulic fracturing actually ranks below both coal and ethanol production. Instead, what’s left is the issue
- 1473 - [March 9, 2015] - OilPrice, James Stafford - "Texas: From Shale Boom To Water Revolution"
"Texas is famous the world over for two things on a massive scale: oil and droughts. Now the slick but dry state is becoming famous for water: that precious element that both resolves the drought problem and also makes it possible to pump more oil out of the ground.
Not only does Texas have the Permian Basin and the Eagle Ford shale, but it also has the Gulf of Mexico and its massive oil deposits and endless gallons of seawater that are now economically treatable thanks to next generation water processing technology.
As NASA predicts a decades-long ‘mega drought’ later this century, next generation water processing technology coming from within the oil industry promises not only to help solve Texas’ drought problem by accessing and desalinating brackish and slightly salty water sources deep under the dry Texan surface, but to go one step further by desalinating ocean water and turning dirty water into potable water.
First, microbes are introduced into the wastewater, which feed on the organic contaminants and release their inherent energy. The energy is then used to create an electric current between positively and negatively charged electrodes. Once live, the electrodes attract the dissolved salt, trapping it on their surface. It does not end there, however. Besides preparing the wastewater for reuse, the battery also creates a surplus of energy that could be used to run equipment on site. Traditional treatment methods are net users of electricity and not providers."
- 1474 - [March 12, 2015] - Oil Gas Daily, Staff Writers - "Making treatment of oil and gas wastewater simpler, cheaper"
"Earthquakes are a rarity in Youngstown, Ohio but the holidays saw just such excitement as residents experienced two earthquakes, which registered 2.7 and 4.0 on the Richter scale. The earthquakes resulted in no casualties and relatively minor damage, but the historical paucity of earthquakes in the region has led officials to question nearby fracking operations. Hydraulic fracturing, fracking, is a process of drilling for natural gas which has stirred up controversy between environmental and scientific groups—which question its safety—and pro-business groups—which support the economic benefits of recovering potentially massive quantities of natural gas. This week, Politics & Policy will attempt to sort through the controversy, explain exactly what fracking is and whether it is truly as dangerous as some critics have suggested."
- 1477 - [2013] - BloomBergBusiness, Jim Efstathiou Jr - "Fracking Fluids May Migrate to Aquifers, Researcher Says"
"Chemically treated drilling fluid can migrate through thousands of feet of rock and endanger water supplies, said a hydrologist whose research calls into question the safety of hydraulic fracturing for natural gas.
The fluids can migrate faster that previously thought, Tom Myers, a Reno, Nevada, researcher, said yesterday. His study, published in the online journal Ground Water on April 17, says fluids can reach shallow drinking-water aquifers in as little as three years."
- 1502 - [December 29, 2014] - Pennsylvania | Energy.Environment.Economy, Katie Colaneri - "DEP publishes details on 248 cases of water damage from gas development"
"For the first time, Pennsylvania environmental regulators are publicly releasing documents about cases when natural gas operations have damaged private water supplies.
A list of 248 incidents is now available on the Department of Environmental Protection’s website with links to the letters sent to homeowners when the agency determined their water well was impacted by gas development."
- 1507 - [March 5, 2015] - The Intelligencer, Wheeling News-Register, CASEY JUNKINS Staff Writer - "Natural Gas Driller Gulfport Sues Barnesville To Use Water"
"Citing a potential loss of "millions of dollars," Marcellus and Utica shale driller Gulfport Energy is suing the village of Barnesville for the right to draw water from the Slope Creek Reservoir for its nearby fracking operations."
- 1533 - [2013] - NEW SOLUTIONS, Vol. 23(1) 137-166, 2013 - Baywood Publishing Co., Inc, Stephen m. Penningroth Matthew m. Yarrow Abner x. Figueroa Rebecca j. Bowen Soraya Delgado - "Community-based Riskassessment of Water Contamination from High-Volume Horizontal Hydraulic Fracturing"
"The risk of contaminating surface and groundwater as a result of shale gas extraction using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has not been assessed using conventional risk assessment methodologies. Baseline (pre-fracking) data on relevant water quality indicators, needed for meaningful risk assessment, are largely lacking. To fill this gap, the nonprofit Community Science Institute (CSI) partners with community volunteers who perform regular sampling of more than 50 streams in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of upstate New York; samples are analyzed for parameters associated with HVHHF. Similar baseline data on regional groundwater comes from CSI’s testing of private drinking water wells. Analytic results for groundwater (with permission) and surface water are made publicly available in an interactive, searchable database. Baseline concentrations of potential contaminants from shale gas operations are found to be low, suggesting that early community-based monitoring is an effective foundation for assessing later contamination due to fracking."
- 1547 - [NA] - NETL, University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University - "Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production"
"The goal is to develop a sustainable approach for water management in the Marcellus Shale play, in which flowback water is economically treated on site and reused for hydraulic fracturing adjacent wells. Optimal treatment processes will be identified, and acid mine drainage (AMD) water will be examined as a potential supplement to flowback water used for hydraulic fracturing. Researchers will also investigate the effects of barium sulfate (BaSO4) precipitation on well surfaces and fracture spaces."
- 1562 - [November 29, 2013] - About Money, Wendy Lyons Sunshine - "Waste Water Byproducts of Shale Gas Drilling"
"During hydrofracking, millions of gallons of water mixed with industrial chemicals and proppant (sand or ceramic particles) are blasted into the well bore to release natural gas. In the Marcellus Shale formation in the northeastern
U.S., for example, fracking a single well can require 1 million to 5 million gallons of this water mixture.
Waste water that comes back up out of a shale gas well goes by two names: flowback and produced water. These terms are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings"
- 1564 - [NA] - About News, Frederic Beaudry - "Natural Gas Fracking: What Happens to the Waste Water?"
"...The fracking process involves the use of large amounts of water, on average 3 to 5 million gallons of water per well. In the Marcellus shale formation, an average of 430,000 gallons of waste water comes back out of the well. This waste water consists of flowback water, which is of similar composition as the water and chemical cocktail pumped down, and of produced water, which contains the brine that was in the shale formation. So in addition to the fracking chemicals, this waste water contains high concentrations of salt, heavy metals like lead, arsenic, and strontium, and sometimes radioactive elements like uranium, radium, and radon."
- 1565 - [NA] - About News, Wendy Lyons Sunshine - "Flowback and Produced Water Are Hazardous"
"Flowback and produced water are considered hazardous waste and must be disposed of safely. According to the EPA, produced waters are typically disposed of in deep wells or “non-potable coastal waters.”
Flowback and produced water can contain salt, industrial chemicals, hydrocarbons, and radioactive materials."
- 1566 - [NA] - About News, Frederic Beaudry - "Natural Gas Fracking and the Environment: Water Use"
"...Fracking’s high need for freshwater often raises flags for neighboring residents, as people are increasingly concerned about drinking water safety and availability.
The fracking process involves the use of water to lubricate the drill bit as it bores the well, to carry drill cuttings
out of the well, and then later, under very high pressure, to crack the shale rock and release the natural gas. This last role requires 3 to 5 million gallons of water per well."
- 1570 - [March 24, 2015] - Audebon, Tessa Stuart - "Big Oil:s Best-Kept Secret"
"To keep itself off the Toxics Release Inventory, the fossil fuel industry might have a new trick up its sleeve—putting state attorneys general on the payroll.
By now most of us have a basic grasp of the way fracking works: Pumps shoot a high-pressure cocktail of water, silt, and chemicals hundreds of feet underground, shattering ancient rock and releasing pockets of natural gas, a whole lot of money, and a brew of toxic byproducts. What we don’t know is exactly how much of which toxins are collecting in the soil, seeping into groundwater, or wafting into nearby communities. Fossil fuel companies have kept it that way, with help from governors, congressmen, senators, and, increasingly, state attorneys general."
- 1574 - [March 24, 2015] - Penn Live - The Patriot News, Donald Gilliland - "Marcellus Shale drilling process pumps water underground, never to return"
"Drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale uses millions of gallons of water at each well. The water is mixed with sand and chemicals and pumped deep into the ground at very high pressure to fracture the rock and release the natural gas.
Most of it never returns.
...“The majority of the water remains underground, permanently removed from the hydrologic cycle,” said Schmidt at a recent rally in the state Capitol. “It can never sustain life above ground again.”"
- 1586 - [March 25, 2015] - National Geographic, Christina Nunez, National Geographic - "Water Use for Fracking Has Skyrocketed, USGS Data Show"
"...The evolution of hydraulic fracturing—and its demand on water supplies—can be seen in historical data covering nearly one million wells drilled over 63 years. An analysis from the U.S. Geological Survey, released in late January, notes that water-intensive horizontal or directional drilling increased dramatically between 2000 and 2010."
- 1590 - [October 16, 2014] - The Province, Dan Fumano, The Province - "Outrage boils over as B.C. government plans to sell groundwater for $2.25 per million litres"
"More than 82,000 people have signed a petition against the government’s plans to sell B.C.’s water for $2.25 per million litres.
“It is outrageous,” says the online petition from, that corporations can buy water “for next to nothing.”
B.C.’s Water Sustainability Act (WSA), which comes into effect next January and replaces the province’s century-old water legislation, has been heralded as a major step forward. But politicians and experts are raising doubts over whether the newly announced water fees may be too low to cover the cost of the program, asking if the act simply won’t be implemented properly, or if taxpayers could end up picking up the bill."
- 1594 - [June 12, 2014] -, SciCheck · The Wire - "Inhofe on Fracking, Water Contamination"
"Sen. James Inhofe says there has never been “an instance of ground water contamination” caused by hydraulic fracturing — fracking — for oil and natural gas. Inhofe’s office told us he is referring only to “the physical act of cracking rocks through hydraulic fracturing.” But drilling operations that involve fracking include other actions that have caused contamination."
- 1603 - [October 30, 2014] - resource for the Future - Library Blog, y Wenjing Sang, et al. - "Fracking Waste Water May Introduce Pollutants into Groundwater through Exposed Soils: Cornell Study"
" The oil and gas extraction method known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, could potentially contribute more pollutants to groundwater than past research has suggested, according to a new study in ACS’ journal Environmental Science & Technology. Scientists are reporting that when spilled or deliberately applied to land, waste fluids from fracking are likely picking up tiny particles in the soil that attract heavy metals and other chemicals with possible health implications for people and animals…"
- 1607 - [May 3, 1992] - Raw Story, Tom Boggion - "WATCH: Nebraska farmer silences oil and gas committee with invitation to drink water tainted by fracking"
"Appearing before a Nebraska Oil & Gas Conservation committee hearing, a local farmer received nothing but silence from the pro-fracking members of the board after he invited them to drink glasses of water tainted by fracking."
- 1664 - [April 9, 2015] - PowerSource | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Stephanie Ritenbaugh / Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - "EPA analysis details water usage in fracking in Pennsylvania"
"Drillers in Pennsylvania used about 11 billion gallons of water to tap shale formations in the Appalachian Basin between 2011 and 2013, according to an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The EPA examined more than 39,000 disclosures submitted across the country between January 2011 and February 2013 to the website FracFocus, an industry-backed registry of the components used to frack shale formations, including the Marcellus and Utica shales that span Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio.
For Pennsylvania, the EPA examined 2,483 disclosures by natural gas drillers."
- 1753 - [NA] - Pro Publica, Abrahm Lustgarten - "Officials in Three States Pin Water Woes on Gas Drilling"
"Norma Fiorentino's drinking water well was a time bomb. For weeks, workers in her small northeastern Pennsylvania town had been plumbing natural gas deposits from a drilling rig a few hundred yards away. They cracked the earth and pumped in fluids to force the gas out. Somehow, stray gas worked into tiny crevasses in the rock, leaking upward into the aquifer and slipping quietly into Fiorentino's well. Then, according to the state's working theory, a motorized pump turned on in her well house, flicked a spark and caused a New Year's morning blast that tossed aside a concrete slab weighing several thousand pound."
- 1754 - [April 26, 2009] - ExxonMobil Perspectives, Ken Cohen - "Facts on the hydraulic fracturing process"
"A couple weeks ago, I pointed to a U.K. Parliamentary study that found that hydraulic fracturing – a method that’s enabling greater production of natural gas in shale and other formations – poses no more risk to the environment or water supplies than any other oil and gas production technique.
What’s most important about hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”), the study found, is ensuring that proper well design and water-handling procedures are rigorously applied at every well."
- 1764 - [August 11, 2014] - Pro Publica, Abrahm Lustgarten - "Officials in Three States Pin Water Woes on Gas Drilling"
"Norma Fiorentino's drinking water well was a time bomb. For weeks, workers in her small northeastern Pennsylvania town had been plumbing natural gas deposits from a drilling rig a few hundred yards away. They cracked the earth and pumped in fluids to force the gas out. Somehow, stray gas worked into tiny crevasses in the rock, leaking upward into the aquifer and slipping quietly into Fiorentino's well. Then, according to the state's working theory, a motorized pump turned on in her well house, flicked a spark and caused a New Year's morning blast that tossed aside a concrete slab weighing several thousand pounds."
- 1798 - [April 29, 2015] - Energy in Depth, Tom Shepstone - "Turning Natural Gas Into Water: Hydraulic Fracturing Doesn’t Deplete Water Supplies"
"One of the least understood impacts of natural gas development is its impact on the water cycle. We often hear about how much water is required to hydraulically fracture a well (as much as five million gallons) and how much of the water (as much 80%) stays underground. Many think this water is irretrievably lost, that is to say forever removed from the water cycle, because we are leaving it a mile or more underground. This is true, up to a point, but it’s far from the full story, because the combustion of natural gas yields water vapor that goes into the atmosphere, and a lots of it. It yields enough water, in fact, to more than replace what is lost in just a matter of months."
- 1844 - [April 6, 2015] - inside climate news, Neela Banerjee, InsideClimate News - "Journal Corrects Fracking Study Over Undisclosed Industry Funding"
"Fracking study that concluded drinking water not affected by methane gets an unusual correction following a report by InsideClimate News.
An influential science journal has issued a correction to a paper on fracking and water safety, after revelations that the authors did not disclose their financial ties to energy giant Chesapeake Energy. The correction was prompted by an article in InsideClimate News in April."
- 1861 - [May 12, 2015] - - Powered by Shale Plays Media, Danielle Wente | Shale Plays Media - "AP Update: Penn. water study secret conflict of interest"
"After learning that authors of a recent study that linked natural gas operations in the Marcellus Shale formation in Pennsylvania to contaminated ground water did not share their rather large conflict of interest, an update and correction is in order.
The Associated Press (AP) received an embargoed copy of the report that failed to disclose that an author of the report was a consultant for affected homeowners who sued the driller....."
- 1866 - [NA] -, Danielle Wente | Shale Plays Media - "Waterless fracking test well isn’t doing so hot"
"While the oil and gas industry was excited about the idea of waterless fracking and the environmental and health benefits that it would bring, it is sad to say the Ohio well testing waterless fracking isn’t exactly that bright light at the end of tunnel.
The $22 million test well operated by EV Energy Partners LP, along with eight other companies, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, has officially been producing for 90 days but didn’t quite meet expectations. Nettles, the test well, produced half the amount of oil that its neighboring well that used water produced. EV Energy Partners LP’s Chairman John Walker shared the information on Monday during an earning calls with analysts.
EV Energy’s Director Ken Mariani said that the costs of drilling a typical well in the Utica shale formation usually costs $6.5 million to $8 million. As Mariani explained, it is obvious that $22 million on one well is a lot of money."
- 1882 - [October 16, 2014] -, Cody Neff and Danielle Wente | The Register-Herald, Beckley, W.Va. - "Local activists say fracking poses threat to Fayette County's water"
"Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink. That’s what’s going on in the Lochgelly area of Fayette County, according to local activists.
To warn the public about the danger to their water, a meeting took place Saturday at the Historic Oak Hill School in Oak Hill."
- 1892 - [October 6, 2010] - The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Elizabeth W. Boyer, Bryan R. Swistock, James Clark, Mark Madden, and Dana E. Rizzo - "The Impact of Marcellus Gas Drilling on Rural Drinking Water Supplies"
"This research looked to provide an unbiased and large- scale study of water quality in private water wells in rural Pennsylvania before and after the drilling of nearby Marcellus Shale gas wells. It also looked to document both the enforcement of existing regulations and the use of voluntary measures by homeowners to protect water supplies."
- 1897 - [May 20, 2015] - Great Lakes Echo, Colleen Otte - "Pennsylvania study finds contaminants in drilling wastewater"
"Two chemicals never before considered oil and gas industry contaminants, ammonium and iodide, were found in alarming levels in drilling wastewater discharged into Pennsylvania’s waterways, according to a recent study.
The Duke University study, “Iodide, Bromide, and Ammonium in Hydraulic Fracturing and Oil and Gas Wastewaters: Environmental Implications,” was published in the Environmental Science and Technology Journal."
- 1944 - [June 9, 2015] - EcoWatch, Josh Fox and Lee Ziesche - "Fracking Does Cause 'Widespread, Systemic' Contamination of American’s Drinking Water"
"In a draft report five years in the making, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has confirmed that fracking does indeed contaminate drinking water, a fact the oil and gas industry has vehemently denied."
- 1946 - [June 5, 2015] - USGS, USGA - "Dissolved Methane in New York Groundwater"
"New York State is underlain by numerous bedrock formations of Cambrian to Devonian age that produce natural gas and to a lesser extent oil. The first commercial gas well in the United States was dug in the early 1820s in Fredonia, south of Buffalo, New York, and produced methane from Devonian-age black shale. Methane naturally discharges to the land surface at some locations in New York."
- 1954 - [June 8, 2015] - MarketWatch, Myra P. Saefong - "Why shale producers are happy with this EPA fracking study"
"The energy industry agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — at least when it comes to the findings of an EPA study on hydraulic fracturing.
Michael Krancer, partner and chair of the energy industry team at law firm Blank Rome LLP, said a draft report on the EPA study shows that fracking is “safe,” with “no widespread issues.”
Here’s what the EPA draft report released last week officially says: “There are above- and below-ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources.” "
- 1957 - [March 29, 2012] - MintPress News, MintPress News Desk - "How The Mainstream Media Whitewashed The EPA’s Fracking Study"
"Several mitigating factors in the purported “landmark” investigation have been so blatantly and conspicuously ignored by mainstream press that it is arguable the true findings haven’t been disclosed at all.
The EPA released findings of its study on the impact of fracking on drinking water resources, but derelict reporting by corporate media has utterly failed the public. Several mitigating factors in the purported “landmark” investigation have been so blatantly and conspicuously ignored by mainstream press that it is arguable the true findings haven’t been disclosed at all."
- 1962 - [June 2, 2015] - Preserve the Beartooth Front, David Katz - "New EPA report links fracking to water contamination. That’s great, but local regulation is still required"
"The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yesterday released a new draft report on the potential impact of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas on drinking water. The study concludes that there are “potential vulnerabilities in the water lifecycle that could impact drinking water.”"
- 2012 - [April 4, 2011] - NRDC - Natural Resources Defense Council, NRDC - "Unchecked FrackingThreatens Health, Water Supplies"
"Weak safeguards and inadequate oversight have allowed oil and gas producers to run roughshod over communities across the country with their extraction and production activities for too long, resulting in contaminated water supplies, dangerous air pollution, destroyed streams, and devastated landscapes. Our state and federal leaders have failed to hold them to account, leaving the American people unprotected. Many companies don't play by the few rules that do exist; and industry has used its political power at every turn to gain exemptions from environmental laws designed to protect our air and water."
- 2021 - [June 11, 2015] - Water Research Center, Brian Oram - "Helping to Improve Water Quality & Watershed Management"
"Website Dedicated to Information and Free Resources for Private Well Owners, Evaluation of Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems, Private Well Water Testing, Pennsylvania Water Quality and Education/Outreach Programs - We Need Your Help to Spread the Word!"
- 2034 - [June 15, 2015] - Environmental Action, Drew Hudson - "You Can't Trust the EPA on fracking"
"The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) finally released their study on how fracking impacts drinking water. You’ll doubtless see headlines repeating the study’s main finding that fracking poses no “widespread” risk to drinking water. But even that summary is a lie, or at least a very misleading falsehood, and we’ll tell you why:
EPA-approved-flaming-waterThe first, and most important reason not to trust this study on fracking’s impact to drinking water: The EPA is a bunch of fracking liars. In July 2013, an investigative report in the Los Angeles Times revealed that EPA officials in Washington, D.C. chose to close an investigation of polluted drinking water in Pennsylvania despite evidence gathered from EPA investigators based in Philadelphia that found “significant damage to the water quality.”"