Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage

Waste Disposal

Links to articles that describe wastes and waste disposal method of materials processed by hydraulic fracturing.

- 1078 - [January 20, 2015] - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Don Hopey / Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - "Study raises concerns over wastewater from drilling"
"A Duke University-led study has found high concentrations of two potentially hazardous contaminants in oil- and gas-well drilling wastewater discharged into waterways in Pennsylvania and elsewhere.
Ammonium, when dissolved in water, can convert to ammonia, which is toxic to aquatic life. Sampling at wastewater discharge sites found ammonium concentrations up to 100 milligrams per liter, or more than 50 times higher than the federal water quality limit for protecting aquatic life. High iodide levels, also found in the wastewater discharge sampling, can react with chemicals used in public drinking water treatment plants to produce toxic chemical by-products."
- 1196 - [January 28, 2015] - Energy News in Context - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Anya Litvak / Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - "Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection changes rules for oil and gas sludge at landfills"
"A change in the rules for landfills accepting fracking fluid sludges could mean higher prices for disposal, and more oil and gas waste going out of state.
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, concerned that concentrated frack fluid waste wasn’t being adequately diluted at state landfills over the past several years, instituted a new policy starting Jan. 1.
Annual limits for accepting radioactive waste from oil and gas operations were changed to monthly caps to ensure that such waste was properly mixed with non-radioactive waste at a ratio of 1:50."
- 1209 - [NA] - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - "Oil and Gas Production Wastes"
"The geologic formations that contain oil and gas deposits also contain naturally-occurring radionuclides, which are referred to as "NORM" (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials)...
Much of the petroleum in the earth's crust was created at the site of ancients seas by the decay of sea life. As a result, petroleum deposits often occur in aquifers containing brine (salt water). Radionuclides, along with other minerals that are dissolved in the brine, precipitate (separate and settle) out forming various wastes at the surface..."
- 1347 - [February 4, 2015] - Tulsa World, ZIVA BRANSTETTER World Enterprise Editor - "State orders injection well shut down after northwestern Oklahoma earthquake"
"Staff at the Oklahoma Corporation Commission directed that an injection well operated by SandRidge Energy be shut down Tuesday due to continuing earthquakes in Alfalfa County near the Kansas border.
The well is the second active wastewater injection well directed to “shut in” or halt operations by the agency since it began a new monitoring system in 2013."
- 1448 - [November 9, 2009] -, Sharon Kelly - "Radioactive Waste From the Marcellus Shale Continues to Draw Concern"
"Amid all the pushback to fracking, most of the attention has focused on what drillers put into the ground. The amount of water used. The chemicals that make up energy companies' secret mix. Whether these dangerous chemicals will contaminate our drinking water. But one of the biggest problems of fracking, indeed, the Achilles heel of this innovative drilling technique that is giving fossil fuels a second lease on life is the waste that comes out of the ground."