Links to articles that describe wastes and waste disposal method of materials processed by hydraulic fracturing.
- - 1078 - [January 20, 2015] - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Don Hopey / Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - "Study raises concerns over wastewater from drilling"
- "A Duke University-led study has found high concentrations of two potentially hazardous contaminants in oil- and gas-well drilling wastewater discharged into waterways in Pennsylvania and elsewhere.
Ammonium, when dissolved in water, can convert to ammonia, which is toxic to aquatic life. Sampling at wastewater discharge sites found ammonium concentrations up to 100 milligrams per liter, or more than 50 times higher than the federal water quality limit for protecting aquatic life. High iodide levels, also found in the wastewater discharge sampling, can react with chemicals used in public drinking water treatment plants to produce toxic chemical by-products."
- - 1209 - [NA] - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - "Oil and Gas Production Wastes"
- "The geologic formations that contain oil and gas deposits also contain naturally-occurring radionuclides, which are referred to as "NORM" (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials)...
Much of the petroleum in the earth's crust was created at the site of ancients seas by the decay of sea life. As a result, petroleum deposits often occur in aquifers containing brine (salt water). Radionuclides, along with other minerals that are dissolved in the brine, precipitate (separate and settle) out forming various wastes at the surface..."