Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage

Seismic Events

Links to articles and reports that discuss seismic activities that can be attributed to fracking and injection wells.

- 1001 - [January 14, 2015] - Clean Technica, Aisha Abdelhamid - "Why New York Banned Fracking"
"New York State voters approve of Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s recent decision to ban hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, by a margin of 55 to 25 percent. According to a recent Quinnipiac University poll, no political party, gender, age group, or regional interest group disapproves of the ban against fracking in New York State. A recent article in Wall Street Journal does not carry the same favorable opinion, however. Implying that newly re-elected Governor Cuomo is an unknowledgeable wimp,..."
- 1003 - [December 9, 2011] - Nature, Zoë Corbyn - "Method predicts size of fracking earthquakes - Scientists develop way to forecast worst-case tremor scenario."
"Small earthquakes are a recognized risk of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking', a procedure in which companies unlock energy reserves by pumping millions of liters of water underground to fracture shale rock and release the natural gas trapped inside. Researchers now say that they can calculate the highest magnitude earthquake that such an operation could induce — though it won't determine the likelihood of a quake occurring.
The researchers found a proportional relationship between the volume of fluid injected and the magnitude of the earthquake."
- 1021 - [January 7, 2015] - ClimateProgress, Emily Atkin - "Texas City Hit With 11 Earthquakes In 24 Hours"
"In the 24 hours spanning Tuesday to Wednesday morning, the city of Irving, Texas, was hit with eleven earthquakes — and some are trying to figure out if nearby fracking operations are to blame.
The series of quakes comes just a few days after scientists from the University of Miami published research suggesting that the controversial process of fracking caused a similar series of 77 earthquakes in the Poland Township of Ohio. That research directly attributed the earthquakes to fracking — "
- 1022 - [January 6, 2015] - ClimateProgress, Emily Atkin - "For The First Time, Scientists Prove Fracking Caused An Earthquake Strong Enough To Be Felt By Humans"
"A series of 77 earthquakes in Ohio — including one strong enough to be felt by humans — was caused by the controversial process of hydraulic fracturing, scientists claimed in research published Tuesday in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA).
The scientists, from the University of Miami, identified 77 earthquakes of varying size in the Poland Township of Ohio, all occurring between March 4 and March 12 and all located near a group of oil and gas wells. The quakes ranged between magnitudes of 1.0 and 3.0, but the local community reportedly only felt one, a magnitude 3.0 on March 10."
- 1023 - [January 5, 2015] - Seismological Society of America, Nan Broadbent - "Fracking Confirmed as Cause of Rare “Felt” Earthquake in Ohio"
"A new study links the March 2014 earthquakes in Poland Township, Ohio to hydraulic fracturing that activated a previously unknown fault. The induced seismic sequence included a rare felt earthquake of magnitude 3.0, according to research published online by the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA).
In March 2014, a series of five recorded earthquakes, ranging from magnitude 2.1 to 3.0, occurred within one kilometer (0.6 miles) of a group of oil and gas wells operated by Hilcorp Energy, which was conducting active hydraulic fracturing operations at the time. Due to the proximity of a magnitude 3.0 event near a well, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) halted operations at the Hilcorp well on March 10, 2014. "
- 1024 - [January 6, 2015] - Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Robert J. Skoumal, Michael R. Brudzinski, and Brian S. Currie - "Earthquakes Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in Poland Township, Ohio"
"Felt seismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing is very rare, with only a handful of reported cases worldwide. Using an optimized multi station cross‐correlation template‐matching routine, 77 earthquakes were identified in Poland Township, Mahoning County, Ohio, that were closely related spatially and temporally to active hydraulic fracturing operations. We identified earthquakes as small as local magnitudes (ML) ∼1 up to 3, potentially one of the largest earthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing in the United States. These events all occurred from 4 to 12 March 2014, and the rate decayed once the Ohio Department of Natural Resources issued a shutdown of hydraulic fracturing at a nearby well on 10 March."
- 1025 - [January 7, 2015] - The Dallas Morning News, Robert Wilonsky - "Update - Irving to get 22 more seismographs after 12 confirmed quakes in past two days"
"Thirteen earthquakes have been recorded near State Highway 114 and 183 in Irving since the beginning of 2015.
In an afternoon press conference, Craig Pearson, a seismologist for the state’s oil and gas regulatory agency, reiterated his position that wastewater disposal wells in North Texas are not to be blamed for the rash of quakes in Irving and Dallas in recent weeks."
- 1032 - [December 8, 2011] - NA, EPA - "FACT SHEET: Administration Takes Steps Forward on Climate Action Plan by Announcing Actions to Cut Methane Emissions"
"The steps announced today are also a sound economic and public health strategy because reducing methane emissions means capturing valuable fuel that is otherwise wasted and reducing other harmful pollutants – a win for public health and the economy. Achieving the Administration’s goal would save up to 180 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2025, enough to heat more than 2 million homes for a year and continue to support businesses that manufacture and sell cost-effective technologies to identify, quantify, and reduce methane emissions."
- 1033 - [January 2015] - PSE Health Energy, NA - "Toward an understanding of the environmental and public health impacts of shale gas development: an analysis of the peer-reviewed scientific literature, 2009-2014"
"Conversations on the negative environmental and public health impacts of shale gas development continue to play out in the media, in policy discussions, and among the general public. But what does the science actually say? While research continues to lag behind the rapid scaling of shale gas development, there has been a surge of peer-reviewed scientific papers published in recent years. In fact, of all the available scientific peer-reviewed literature on the impacts of shale gas development approximately 73% has been published since January 1, 2013. What this tells us is that the scientific community is only now beginning to understand the impacts of this industry on the environment and human populations. Hazards and risks have been identified, but many data gaps still persist. Importantly, there remains a dearth of quantitative epidemiology that assesses associations between risk factors and human health outcomes among populations."
- 1056 - [January 5, 2015] - Pittsburgh Post Gazette, Don Hopey - "Study: Fracking caused earthquakes in existing faults in Ohio"
"A scientific study has linked hydraulic fracturing to 77 minor earthquakes last March around Poland, Ohio, just across the Pennsylvania-Ohio line.
The sequence of seismic events, including a rare “felt” quake of a magnitude 3.0 on the Richter scale, was caused by active “fracking” on two nearby Hilcorp Energy Co. well pads, according to the research published online today in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America."
- 1086 - [January 20, 2015] - FoxNews.com, FoxNews.com - "Political tremors: Kansas officials link earthquakes to fracking-related process"
"Kansas officials for the first time have said a sharp increase in earthquakes may be tied to a process connected to fracking -- stoking debate in the state over the controversial drilling practice.
Reports of earthquakes in Kansas have shot up recently, particularly in the state's south-central region. Now, scientists are connecting them to the disposal of wastewater that is a byproduct of the oil-and-gas extraction process.
Fracking is not a new practice, but the recent spike in seismic activity is. According to the Kansas Geological Survey, the state recorded more than 120 quakes in 2014, up from none in 2012."
- 1115 - [November 17, 2014] - CBS Pittsburgh, David Highfield - "Experts Exploring Link Between Natural Gas Drilling & Earthquakes"
"Some places that rarely have earthquakes are having them now, and officials have linked some of them to fracking or related activities.
“There was a huge boom. This big crashing boom,” That’s how Valerie Dearing describes one of the larger quakes. She happens to be an anti-fracking activist, but others in Eastern Ohio felt it, too.
“I thought at first it might be a truck wreck or some kind of explosion,” said Dearing. “No, it was an earthquake.”"
- 1195 - [January 28,2015] - Haynesville.com - Powered by& Shale Plays Media, Ross Torgerson | Shale Plays Media - "Fracking causing environmental concerns of seismic proportions"
"Environmental activists have been dealt a pretty decent hand when it comes to betting against fracking–and as of late–that hand has gone from two-pairs, to a full house. Recently, reports of fracking-related earthquakes are popping up in the news nearly as frequent as job cuts in the oil industry. States like Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado and Ohio have all reported multiple earthquakes recently.
As recently as Monday, geologists in Kansas went to the House Energy and Environment Committee to ask for more funding to investigate an unprecedented spike in earthquakes in the state."
- 1288 - [February 8, 2015] - TXsharon - BlueDaze - Drilling Reform, TXsharon - "Irving earthquakes originate at fracking site"
"SMU scientists have released a preliminary report that indicates the recent Irving earthquakes originated near two gas wells. There is an ancient fault in that area that was dormant. Unfortunately for Irving and Dallas, it’s not dormant anymore."
- 1347 - [February 4, 2015] - Tulsa World, ZIVA BRANSTETTER World Enterprise Editor - "State orders injection well shut down after northwestern Oklahoma earthquake"
"Staff at the Oklahoma Corporation Commission directed that an injection well operated by SandRidge Energy be shut down Tuesday due to continuing earthquakes in Alfalfa County near the Kansas border.
The well is the second active wastewater injection well directed to “shut in” or halt operations by the agency since it began a new monitoring system in 2013."
- 1349 - [February 10, 2015] - Tulsa World, ZIVA BRANSTETTER World Enterprise Editor and CURTIS KILLMAN World Staff Writer - "Earthquake politics: 'We don't work in a vacuum,' Oklahoma state seismologist says"
"As Amberlee Darold steers the white pickup over a rutted cow pasture near Oklahoma City, she tries to explain what it’s like being a seismologist for the state of Oklahoma right now. Darold works at the Oklahoma Geological Survey, the state agency charged with studying and reporting on Oklahoma’s current earthquake explosion."
- 1352 - [February 18, 2014] - Time Magazine, Denver Nicks - "Oklahoma Wonders Why The Earth Is Shaking"
"An unusually high number of tremors have shaken the state lately, leading some to point their fingers at the emerging hydraulic fracturing industry, though the real culprit might be a type of wastewater storage system
No strangers to nature’s fury, Oklahomans grow up accustomed scorching heat, blizzards, wrecking-ball thunderstorms and tornadoes. What they don’t see a lot of are earthquakes, which have been rattling the Sooner State with rare frequency of late — at least 115 earthquakes of varying intensities in the last week."
- 1354 - [d July 31, 2014] - National Geographic, Joe Eaton for National Geographic - "Oklahoma Grapples With Earthquake Spike—And Evidence of Industry's Role"
"Customers who stop by Mike Kahn's insurance agency in Oklahoma City are increasingly looking to buy a policy that was unheard of a decade ago: earthquake insurance.
Kahn, who opened the Lynnae Insurance Group in 2002, said he sold earthquake coverage to two homeowners during the first decade he was in business. During the past six months, he sold more than 125 policies."
- 1371 - [February 15, 2015] - DailyMail.com, Christopher Brennan For Dailymail.com and Associated Press - "Risk of devastating earthquake raised for fracking state Oklahoma that used to be considered stable but had three times as many tremors as California in 2014."
"US Geological Survey says risk of major earthquake elevated after fracking
Surge in quakes thought to be linked to changes in ground pressure
Oklahoma had triple California's number of >3.0 magnitude quakes in 2014
2011 earthquake in Oklahoma, 5.7 magnitude, hurt two people
Small earthquakes linked to energy drilling are shaking Oklahoma and southern Kansas daily and may be dramatically increasing the chance of bigger and dangerous quakes.
This once stable region is now just as likely to see serious damaging and potentially harmful earthquakes as the highest risk places east of the Rockies."
- 1411 - [February 2014] - Moyers & Company, Emily Atkin - "For the First Time, Scientists Prove Fracking Caused an Earthquake Strong Enough to Be Felt by People"
"A series of 77 earthquakes in Ohio — including one strong enough to be felt by humans — was caused by the controversial process of hydraulic fracturing, scientists claimed in research published Tuesday in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA).
Small earthquakes have been attributed to fracking in Ohio before. But those earthquakes were all too small to be felt. Tuesday’s study is the first time scientists have attributed a larger earthquake to fracking, the process of injecting high-pressure water, sand and chemicals underground to crack shale rock and let gas flow out more easily."
- 1428 - [November 15, 2011] - The Columbus Dispatch, Will Drabold - "State creates tougher fracking rules to reduce risk of earthquakes"
"State officials now say a series of earthquakes that shook Mahoning County last month likely were caused by fracking, leading them to create the most stringent drilling rules in the nation, requiring seismic monitoring near fault lines and epicenters.
Yesterday, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources announced the rules, which say that monitors must be placed at new drilling sites within 3 miles of known fault lines or areas that experienced an earthquake greater than magnitude 2.0.
The state will not require monitoring at wells that already have been drilled."
- 1526 - [March 1, 2015] - EcoWatch - Transforming Green, Anastasia Pantsios - "Scientists Say Small Fracking Earthquakes Could Lead to Major Ones"
"Over the last several years clusters of earthquakes have been occurring in places that rarely saw significant earthquake activity, including Texas, Oklahoma and Ohio. Those earthquakes have been connected to the wastewater injection techniques used in fracking, which researchers say activate hidden fault lines. It’s referred to as “induced seismicity.”
While most of those earthquakes have been minor—in most cases too small to feel and most under magnitude 3 on the Richter Scale—they could be getting much larger according to scientist William Ellsworth of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)."
- 1554 - [March 19, 2015] - Times, Denver Nicks - "Oklahoma Wonders Why The Earth Is Shaking"
"An unusually high number of tremors have shaken the state lately, leading some to point their fingers at the emerging hydraulic fracturing industry, though the real culprit might be a type of wastewater storage system.
No strangers to nature’s fury, Oklahomans grow up accustomed scorching heat, blizzards, wrecking-ball thunderstorms and tornadoes. What they don’t see a lot of are earthquakes, which have been rattling the Sooner State with rare frequency of late — at least 115 earthquakes of varying intensities in the last week."
- 1615 - [2004] - Recorder - Oficial publication of the Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Kurt Wikel - "Geomechanics: Bridging the Gap from Geophysics to Engineering in Unconventional Reservoirs"
"Oilfield Geomechanics has a broad range of definitions, and depending on who you ask you may get a different answer. To this author, in its simplest form, it encompasses the study of how stresses and strains within the earth affect what we drill into and explore for. The magnitude and direction of stresses and how they affect the rock properties in a region, a field, and a wellbore has a massive impact and control on what we do in unconventional resource exploration and exploitation.
...This paper will describe how geomechanics influences wellbore stability, reservoir properties, and hydraulic stimulations."
- 1645 - [NA] - The New York Times, Richard A. Oppel Jr. and Michael Wines - "As Quakes Rattle Oklahoma, Fingers Point to Oil and Gas Industry"
" Yanked without warning from a deep sleep, Jennifer Lin Cooper, whose family has lived near here for more than a half-century, could think only that the clamor enveloping her house was coming from a helicopter landing on her roof. She was wrong.
A 5.0-magnitude earthquake — the first of three as strong or stronger over several days in November 2011 — had peeled the brick facade from the $117,000 home she bought the year before. Ms. Cooper, 36, could not get out until her father pried a stuck storm door off the front entrance. Repairs have so far cost $12,000 and forced her to take a second job, at night, to pay the bill."
- 1646 - [April 3, 2015] - The Oklahoman, Jay F. Marks, Business Writer - "Geologist: History shows Oklahoma earthquakes not new phenomenon"
"The earthquake swarm shaking Oklahoma right now seems to be similar to one that affected state residents more than 60 years ago, according to a geologist at Continental Resources Inc.
Glen Brown is passionate about geology.
So passionate that he started poring over U.S. Geological Service earthquake data while he was on vacation in Florida six months ago.
Brown’s studies yielded what he called some surprising information.
Brown, who is vice president of geology at Continental Resources Inc., said he discovered evidence that Oklahoma’s rising number of earthquakes isn’t as unprecedented as most people believe.
Brown found a similar earthquake outbreak in the 1950s, when Oklahoma did not have equipment to properly measure seismic activity."
- 1647 - [June 27, 2014] - KOCO.com, Kim Passoth - "Debate continues over cause of Oklahoma quakes"
"What’s causing Oklahoma’s constant quakes? An oil and gas industry geologist made the case Wednesday Mother Nature is to blame, but a national expert tells KOCO otherwise.
“I’d like to have answers,” said Nancy York"
- 1672 - [NA] - The Tyee, Andrew Nikiforuk - "Did Alberta Just Break a Fracking Earthquake World Record?"
"Hydraulic fracturing, a technology used to crack open difficult oil and gas formations, appears to have set off a swarm of earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta, including a record-breaking tremor with a felt magnitude of 4.4 last week.
That would likely make it the largest felt earthquake ever caused by fracking, a development that experts swore couldn't happen a few years ago."
- 1712 - [March 23, 2015] - The New York Times, Michael Wines - "Oklahoma Recognizes Role of Drilling in Earthquakes"
"Abandoning years of official skepticism, Oklahoma’s government on Tuesday embraced a scientific consensus that earthquakes rocking the state are largely caused by the underground disposal of billions of barrels of wastewater from oil and gas wells."
- 1713 - [April 21, 2015] - Earthquakes in Oklahoma, The Office of the Oklahoma Secretary of Energy and Environment - "Welcome to earthquakes.ok.gov"
"Throughout this website, you will find research, regulations, updates and news items related to Oklahoma’s recent earthquakes. We hope you find this website to be a meaningful resource for information related to the current situation and our state government’s collective response."
- 1746 - [April 2015] - abc NEWS, Seth Borenstein AP Science Writer - "Study Links Swarm of Quakes in Texas to Natural Gas Drilling"
" With real-time monitors, scientists have linked a swarm of small earthquakes west of Fort Worth, Texas, to nearby natural gas wells and wastewater injection.
In 84 days from November 2013 to January 2014, the area around Azle, Texas, shook with 27 magnitude 2 or greater earthquakes, while scientists at Southern Methodist University and the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the shaking. It's an area that had no recorded quakes for 150 years on faults that "have been inactive for hundreds of millions of years," said SMU geophysicist Matthew Hornbach.
When the volume of injections decreased significantly, so did the shaking."
- 1747 - [April 21, 2015] - abc NEWS, TIM TALLEY Associated Press - "Oklahoma Geology Group Links Earthquakes to Oil Waste Wells"
" The Oklahoma Geological Survey said Tuesday it is "very likely" that most of the state's recent earthquakes were triggered by the subsurface injection of wastewater from oil and natural gas drilling operations.
Geologists have been studying the cause of hundreds of earthquakes that have shaken the homes and the nerves of residents in central and north-central Oklahoma, where the pace of oil and gas drilling has accelerated in recent years.
A statement released by state geologist Richard D. Andrews and Dr. Austen Holland, state seismologist, said the rate of earthquakes and geographical trends around major oil and gas drilling operations that produce large amounts of wastewater indicate the earthquakes "are very unlikely to represent a naturally occurring process.""
- 1748 - [April 21, 2015] - abc NEWS, Evan Simon - "Oklahoma Admits Oil and Gas Industry Responsible for Dramatic Rise in Earthquakes"
" For the first time in the state's history, Oklahoma’s state government officially recognized the long held scientific consensus linking the disposal of oil and gas wastewater with the record number of earthquakes plaguing it in recent years.
On Tuesday, the Oklahoma Geological Survey released a statement declaring it was “very likely that the majority of recent earthquakes, particularly those in central and north-central Oklahoma, are triggered by the injection of produced water in disposal wells.” "
- 1757 - [June 28, 2014] - Cornell University Library, J. Quinn Norris, Donald L. Turcotte, John B. Rundle - "Anisotropy in Fracking: A Percolation Model for Observed Micro-seismicity"
"Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) using high pressures and a low viscosity fluid allow the extraction of large quantiles of oil and gas from very low permeability shale formations. The initial production of oil and gas at depth leads to high pressures and an extensive distribution of natural fractures which reduce the pressures. With time these fractures heal, sealing the remaining oil and gas in place. High volume fracking opens the healed fractures allowing the oil and gas to flow the horizontal productions wells."
- 1796 - [May 1, 2015] - EcoWatch, Anastasia Pantsios - "8 States Dealing With Huge Increases in Fracking Earthquakes"
"A new report, released Thursday from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), identified eight states in the eastern and central U.S. where fracking operations have led to dramatic increases in earthquakes, primarily from the injection of the wastewater byproduct of drilling operations into underground wells. This process can activate faults that in some cases were previously unknown."
- 1797 - [April 24, 2015] - EcoWatch, Anastasia Pantsios - "Frack-Happy Texas Forced to Face the Reality of Fracking-Related Earthquakes"
"Texas is not known for using caution when it comes to oil and gas development. Fracking has swept the state like a hurricane, despite attempts by some environmental and community activists. The city of Denton passed a ban on new fracking operations in last November’s elections, and the Texas legislature is currently considering legislation that would overturn that vote and take away the ability of cities and towns to regulate virtually any aspect of drilling within their borders."
- 1824 - [April 22, 2015] - Energy in Depth, Katie Brown - "Five Facts to Know about USGS’s New Seismicity Report"
"This week, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released a report identifying the areas of the United States where induced seismicity has been linked to wastewater injection wells. Unfortunately, the report strangely loops natural earthquakes in with seismic events that could have been induced by injection activities, and in one notable example, ascribes fault to oil and gas production based upon research that concluded exactly the opposite."
- 1825 - [April 24, 2015] - USGS Open-File Report 2015-1070, Mark D. Petersen et al. - "Incorporating Induced Seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model — Results of 2014 Workshop and Sensitivity Studies"
"The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) for the conterminous United States was updated in 2014 to account for new methods, input models, and data necessary for assessing the seismic ground shaking hazard from natural (tectonic) earthquakes. The USGS NSHM project uses probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to quantify the rate of exceedance for earthquake ground shaking (ground motion)."
- 1837 - [May 1, 2015] - Sputnik International, Environment - "Here Are the Places Fracking Wastewater Has Caused Earthquakes, Says USGS"
"The US Geological Survey has published its first ever map of man-made earthquakes, adding to the evidence that seismic activity is increasing in those areas experiencing a boom in oil and gas drilling.
Researchers looked at earthquake data for the region to develop models "to calculate how often earthquakes are expected to occur in the next year and how hard the ground will likely shake as a result.""
- 1838 - [April 29, 2015] - Earthquakes in Oklahoma, Oklahoma Secretary of Energy and Environment - "Welcome to earthquakes.ok.gov"
"Oklahoma experienced 585 magnitude 3+ earthquakes in 2014 compared to 109 events recorded in 2013. This rise in seismic events has the attention of scientists, citizens, policymakers, media and industry. See what information and research state officials and regulators are relying on as the situation progresses."
- 1856 - [May 11, 2015] - International Business Times, Phillip Ross - "Fracking The Reason For Texas' Earthquakes? Report Rules Out 'Natural' Causes For More Tremors"
"The ground under North Texas didn’t always shake, but today the tremors never really stop. Researchers have pinned the recent rise in small earthquakes around the region on fracking, the process of injecting water into the ground at high pressure to break apart the rock and release oil and natural gas. All of the earthquakes in the last seven years have occurred above the Barnett Shale, a geological formation that has become a major fracking site for petroleum companies. It’s “most likely” that many of the quakes were manmade, according to a recent report by researchers from Southern Methodist University in Dallas.
The study, published in April, looked at the uptick in earthquakes near the towns of Reno and Azle, both located atop the Barnett Shale...."
- 1874 - [May 13, 2015] - Marcellus.com, Laura Arenschield | The Columbus Dispatch - "Study ties 77 Ohio earthquakes to two fracking wells"
"A new study links nearly 80 earthquakes that occurred in Mahoning County in March 2014 to nearby fracking operations.
In the study, published online this week in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, the researchers say that the earthquakes were caused when companies fracked into a previously unknown fault.
The result, they say, included a magnitude 3.0 earthquake on March 10 that was strong enough that people in and around Poland Township felt the tremors."
- 1875 - [May 14, 2015] - Marcellus.com, Diana Heidgerd | The Associated Press - "US Geological Survey records cluster of earthquakes in Texas"
" A cluster of small earthquakes rattled a Dallas suburb for a second day Wednesday as experts turned to seismic data to help determine why.
The temblors in the Irving area included three quakes Wednesday morning, the U.S. Geological Survey reported.
Irving police had no reports of injuries or major damage in the 11 earthquakes that hit the area since Tuesday, but asked the public to stop calling 911 to report the shaking unless someone was hurt or there was another emergency.
The magnitudes ranged from 1.6 to 3.6, according to the USGS. Earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 to 3.0 are generally the smallest felt by humans, experts say."
- 2006 - [October 14, 2015] - Boise Weekly, GlobalPost - "Gas Wastewater Likely Triggered Colorado Earthquake"
"Underground disposal of wastewater from gas production likely triggered a moderate earthquake in Colorado in 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey said on Wednesday in a study that may fuel debate over the impact of the U.S. energy boom."
- 2018 - [June 5, 2015] - CBS Denver, NA - "Earthquakes Near Colorado Wastewater Well Decrease"
"The ground around a northern Colorado wastewater injection well has been relatively quiet for more than two months, offering hope that a 10-month string of more than 200 small earthquakes might have subsided.
The bottom 450 feet of the 10,800-foot-deep well was plugged with cement last year, and that might be keeping the wastewater – a byproduct of oil and gas wells – from seeping into fractures and triggering earthquakes, researchers and regulators say."