Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage

Resources and Databases

Links to sites with general information. Often databases that can be searched for additional information on any aspect of gas development.

- 1030 - [January, 2015] - FracFocus - Chemical Disclosure Registry, FracFocus - ""Find A Well" Chemical Disclosure Registry"
"FracFocus continues to evolve and expand, adding more participating companies and reported wells from across the country. Our continued success is the result of nationally recognized organizations working with state governments and the oil and natural gas industry to provide public transparency."
- 1277 - [NA] - USA - United Shale Advocates, United Shale Advocates - "Natural gas is America's key to energy security and economic prosperity."
"We created United Shale Advocates (USA) as an online neighborhood for committed advocates of shale gas and those who want to learn more about the industry. And like a neighborhood where people share ideas, information and stories, our online community will work best when everyone is talking with one another. Start with one action in our advocacy center, and then follow your progress as you become one of the leading advocates of the USA."
- 1278 - [NA] - Marcellus Shale Coalition, Marcellus Shale Coalition - "Marcellus Shale Coalition"
"The Marcellus Shale Coalition (MSC) works with exploration and production, midstream, and supply chain partners in the Appalachian Basin and across the country to address issues regarding the production of clean, job-creating, American natural gas from the Marcellus and Utica Shale plays.
We provide in-depth information to policymakers, regulators, media, and other public stakeholders on the positive impacts responsible natural gas production is having on families, businesses, and communities across the region"
- 1279 - [NA] - Energy from Shale, Energy from Shale - "Energy from Shale"
"Where is America finding more than a century's worth of clean, domestic energy?
Well, it's about a mile beneath our feet, domestic natural gas and oil reserves locked in shale rock. As technology has improved, we now have the ability - through hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling - to safely recover vast supplies that before were out of reach. And building on decades of shale drilling experience and lessons learned from every new well drilled, we continue to ensure the safest proven practices are applied to protect the environment."
- 1280 - [NA] - SWPA Environmental Health Project, SWPA Environmental Health Project - "SWPA Environmental Health Project"
"Our mission is to respond to individuals’ and communities’ need for access to accurate, timely and trusted public health information and health services associated with natural gas extraction.
The Southwest Pennsylvania Environmental Health Project (EHP) is a nonprofit environmental health organization created to assist and support Washington County residents who believe their health has been, or could be, impacted by natural gas drilling activities."
- 1281 - [NA] - Cornell University Cooperative Extension, Cornell University Cooperative Extension - "Natural Gas Resource Center"
"The Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) Natural Gas Resource Center brings together information from a variety of sources, including academic research, industry analysis, local government officials and citizens.
There may be material and resources herein that express viewpoints that are not those of Cornell Cooperative Extension. Material produced by Cornell is identified as such.
A key goal is to provide sound information that will support informed decision making."
- 1285 - [NA] - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation - "New York’s Oil & Gas Database"
"Welcome to New York State DEC’s Oil and Gas database. Here you can search over 35,000 wells and 1,000 oil and gas producing companies.
New features allow refined searches of detailed information. You can query online or download the selected data you need. Search on over 30 different parameters. You can save the results of your queries in either a Microsoft Excel format or in a comma-separated format (CSV). In addition, this application is designed to replace a number of currently static pages which the Division of Mineral Resources posts nightly as part of the Department’s Environmental Notice Bulletin. "
- 1286 - [NA] - PSU - Physician Science & Engineers, Physician Science & Engineers - "PSE STUDY CITATION DATABASE on Shale & Tight Gas Development - See more at0 http0//www.psehealthyenergy.org/site/view/1180#sthash.jSTUxVhF.dpuf"
"This citation database provides bibliographic information, abstracts, and links to many of the vetted scientific papers housed in the PSE Healthy Energy Library, as well as other peer-reviewed journal articles. This database is a near exhaustive and evolving list of the peer-reviewed literature that directly pertains to shale and tight gas development. This literature is organized into twelve different categories, including air quality, water quality, climate, public health, and regulations. PSE Healthy Energy does not necessarily support the methods and the findings of the studies included in this database."
- 1287 - [NA] - New York State Department of Environmentl Resources, New York State Department of Environmentl Resources - "Oil, Gas and Solution Salt Mining in New York State"
"Oil, gas and solution salt mining wells are economically important in New York State with more than 75,000 wells drilled in the state since the late 1800's; about 14,000 of these are still active and new drilling continues. Extraction of oil and gas contributes half a billion dollars to the state's economy each year. Wells are also drilled in New York for underground gas storage, geothermal heating/cooling, stratigraphic exploration, brine disposal and solution salt mining. The value of New York's solution salt mining production is estimated at over 100 million dollars."
- 1297 - [NA] - API - American Petroleum Institute, API - American Petroleum Institute - "Facts About Shale Gas"
"Shale gas is one of the most rapidly growing forms of natural gas. It, along with other non-conventional forms of natural gas, such as tight gas and coalbed methane, will make a major contribution to future North American gas production. Unconventional gas production is forecast to increase from 42 percent of total US gas production in 2007 to 64 percent in 2020. API has assembled this fact sheet to provide background information on shale gas, its potential and its importance."
- 1306 - [NA] - The Barnett Shale Energy Education Council (BSEEC), The Barnett Shale Energy Education Council (BSEEC) - "Data Show Texas Ozone Levels Are Not Driven by Fracking"
"The Barnett Shale Energy Education Council (BSEEC) is a community resource that provides information to the public about gas drilling and production in the Barnett Shale region in North Texas. "
- 1339 - [March 11, 2015] - Northcentral PA.com - Marcellus Shale Coalition, Marcellus Shale Coalition in Gas Industry - "Higher Energy Tax Math Just Doesn’t Add Up"
"As some in Harrisburg work to drastically increase Pennsylvania’s energy taxes – a move that will risk shale’s broad-based positive benefits and strong record of job growth – it is becoming abundantly and increasingly more clear that their math just doesn’t add up. Singling out one subset of an industry – which already generates billions in state tax revenue in addition to the projected $830 million in impact tax revenue alone – with even higher and more onerous energy taxes will undercut Pennsylvania’s ability to compete, grow and further capitalize on the opportunities shale provides, especially as it relates to jobs."
- 1342 - [NA] - Concerned Health Professionals of NY, Concerned Health Professionals of NY - "Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms of Fracking (Unconventionel Gas and Oi Extraction)"
"Directional drilling combined with high-volume hydraulic fracturing and clustered multi-well pads are recently combined technologies for extracting oil and natural gas from shale bedrock. As this unconventional extraction method (collectively known as “fracking”) has pushed into more densely populated areas of the United States, and as fracking operations have increased in frequency and intensity, a significant body of evidence has emerged to demonstrate that these activities are inherently dangerous to people and their communities. Risks include adverse impacts on water, air, agriculture, public health and safety, property values, climate stability and economic vitality.
The Compendium is a fully referenced compilation of the significant body of scientific, medical, and journalistic findings demonstrating risks and harms of fracking. Organized to be accessible to public officials, researchers, journalists and the public at large, the Compendium succinctly summarizes key studies and other findings relevant to the ongoing public debate about unconventional methods of oil and gas extraction. ..."
- 1346 - [December 11, 2014] - Concerned Health Professionals of NY, Concerned Health Professionals of NY - "Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms of Fracking (Unconventional gas and oil Extraction)"
"The Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms of Fracking (the Compendium) is a fully-referenced compilation of the evidence for the risks and harms of fracking that brings together findings from the scientific and medical literature, government and industry rep orts, and journalistic investigation. It is a public, open-access document that is housed on the website of Concerned Health Professionals of New York ( www.concernedhealthny.org ). Since its release in July 2014, it has been used and referenced all over the world"
- 1386 - [November 2013] - Geology.com - geoscience news and information, geology.com - "Marcellus Shale - Appalachian Basin Natural Gas Play"
"A few years ago every geologist involved in Appalachian Basin oil and gas knew about the Devonian black shale called the Marcellus. Its black color made it easy to spot in the field and its slightly radioactive signature made it a very easy pick on a geophysical well log.
However, very few of these geologists were excited about the Marcellus Shale as a major source of natural gas. Wells drilled through it produced some gas but rarely in enormous quantity. Few if any in the natural gas industry suspected that the Marcellus might soon be a major contributor to the natural gas supply of the United States - large enough to be spoken of as a "super giant" gas field. "
- 1389 - [NA] - Marcellus-Shale.us, Jim Rickards - "REAL Marcellus Gas Production. A lot? A little? 7 years or 30 yrs?"
"Potential gas production and actual gas production from Marcellus Shale wells became a hot topic during the summer of 2011. To wit, an SEC investigation. Financial investors need to know how accurate the predictions are of Marcellus Shale gas reserves, and the true productive life of Marcellus wells."
- 1393 - [NA] - The Institute for Energy & Environmental Research for NorthEastern Pennsylvania - Marcellus SHale Informtion Clearing House, The Institute for Energy & Environmental Research for NorthEastern Pennsylvania - "How long are wells in operation?"
"Many factors typically influence the production life of a natural gas well. The initial production rate and the amount of natural gas present are the biggest determinants of a well’s life span. Other factors include the decline rate of the natural gas in a particular spot, unpredictable prices, and the production cost versus the return of natural gas. For example, a company is unlikely to continue investing time and money if a well is not producing enough gas to make a profit. Based on studies of the decline in rate of production of natural gas wells in Texas, it is estimated that some wells can be active for 20 to 30 years. Some sources even estimate that wells can remain active for up to 40 years. New studies are trying to predict the potential life of the Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania. "
- 1397 - [November 12, 2014] - reason.com, Ronald Bailey - "Is the Shale Revolution a 'Ponzi Scheme' or the End of Peak Oil?"
"A lot of folks are fervently forecasting that shale gas and oil production is a bubble about to pop, possibly producing an economic collapse similar to the one in 2008. Earlier this week, the left-leaning Center for Research on Globalization in Montreal dismissed the shale revolution as a "Ponzi scheme" and "this decade's version of the Dotcom bubble." "
- 1400 - [January 7, 2015] - ShaleBubble.org, NA - "the U.S. is counting on a long-term abundance of oil & natural gas. But what if the boom is just a bubble?"
"In recent years Americans have been hearing that the United States is poised to regain its role as the world’s premier oil and natural gas producer, thanks to the widespread use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). This “shale revolution,” we’re told, will fundamentally change the U.S. energy picture for decades to come—leading to energy independence, a rebirth of U.S. manufacturing, and a surplus supply of both oil and natural gas that can be exported to allies around the world. This promise of oil and natural gas abundance is influencing climate policy, foreign policy, and investments in alternative energy sources.
The primary source for these rosy expectations of future production is the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA).
But what if the EIA’s forecasts are wrong?"
- 1421 - [NA] - Natural Gas Subcommittee of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, NA - "resource"
"Subcommittee reports and meeting/information presentations."
- 1422 - [NA] - EPA, United States Environmental Protecting Energy, EPA - "Natural Gas Extraction - Hydraulic Fracturing"
"Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The U.S. has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies enabling greater access to gas in shale formations. Responsible development of America's shale gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits.
EPA is working with states and other key stakeholders to help ensure that natural gas extraction does not come at the expense of public health and the environment. The Agency's focus and obligations under the law are to provide oversight, guidance and, where appropriate, rule-making that achieve the best possible protections for the air, water and land where Americans live, work and play. The Agency is investing in improving our scientific understanding of hydraulic fracturing, providing regulatory clarity with respect to existing laws, and using existing authorities where appropriate to enhance health and environmental safeguards."
- 1424 - [NA] - Energy In Depth, Energy In Depth - "Debunking GasLand"
"For an avant-garde filmmaker and stage director whose previous work has been recognized by the “ Fringe Festival ” of New York City, HBO’s decision to air the GasLand documentary nationwide later this month represents Josh Fox’s first real foray into the mainstream – and, with the potential to reach even a portion of the network’s 30 million U.S. subscribers, a potentially significant one at that.
But with larger audiences and greater fanfare come the expectation of a few basic things: accuracy, attention to detail, and original reporting among them. Unfortunately, in the case of this film, accuracy is too often pushed aside for simplicity, evidence too often sacrificed for exaggeration, and the same old cast of characters and anecdotes – previously debunked – simply lifted from prior incarnations of the film and given a new home in this one."
- 1432 - [September 23, 2013] - Oil and Gas Lawyer Blog, NA - "Supreme Court Ducks Issue of Injection Well-Subsurface Trespass"
"On February 6, 2015, The Supreme Court of Texas released its second opinion in FPL Farming Ltd. (“FPL”) v. Environmental Processing Systems, L.C. (“EPS”). The Beaumont court of appeals had held that injected fluids that migrate beyond the boundary of the land owned by the surface owner constitute a trespass on a neighbor’s property. The Supreme Court declined to address whether or not subsurface wastewater migration is actionable as a common law trespass in Texas, and instead focused on consent as a general element of a trespass cause of action."
- 1434 - [NA] - Natural Gas Forum for Landowners, Natural Gas Forum for Landowners - "Natural Gas Leasing & Production Resources"
"Navigating through the process of negotiating a good natural gas lease is not for the faint hearted. Here you will find a community of landowners and professionals who can help you avoid common pitfalls."
- 1446 - [NA] - Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Marvin Resnikoff, Radioactive Waste Management Associates - "Radon in Natural Gas from Marcellus Shale"
"A significant public health hazard associated with drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale formation must be seriously investigated by t he New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC). This hazard is f rom radioactive radon gas and the potential for large numbers of lung cancer among na ural gas customers. This issue, which has been ignored in the DEC’s Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, must be addressed in a revised Impact Statement and before DEC issues any drilling permits."
- 1482 - [NA] - PTAC - Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, PTAC - Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada - "Links and Resources"
"A large collection of links to businesses and organizations associated with with gas development, with emphasis on applications in Canada."
- 1487 - [NA] - MobileResources, MobileResources - "Fracking Casing Diameter"
"A list of links relating to the 'title' topic. Other topics can be specified."
- 1591 - [March 26, 2015] - MarcellusGas.Org, NA - "Information Related to Pennsylvania Deep Gas Well Activity"
"All kinds of information about marcellus Shale gas development in Pennsylvania."
- 1593 - [March 13, 2015] - Natural gas Now, Tom Shepstone - Natural gas Now - "Fracking and Tourism Growing Together in Bradford County"
"Fracking and tourism, contrary to the speculation of fractivists, can and do grow together. Bradford County, Pennsylvania tourism numbers prove it.
...Like most fractivists, Wes feels no compulsion to offer anything in the way of argument beyond his own baseless speculation. Facts are strictly optional. Unfortunately for Wes, though, there are facts–plenty of facts–and they show the exact opposite of what he speculates."
- 1601 - [NA] - coming clean, NA - "Warning Signs: Toxic Air Pollution Identified at Oil and Gas Sites"
"The recent U.S. oil and gas boom has transformed hundreds of communities across the country—from rural areas and small towns to suburbs and cities—into industrial production zones. Oil and gas companies are using unconventional techniques such as hydraulic fracturing—known known as "fracking"—to extract deposits wherever they can be reached, even if those places are in the backyards of homes, near schools or places of worship, or on farmland. Oil and gas production uses hundreds of toxic chemicals that are emitted directly or escape into the air, exposing residents, workers and animals."
- 1609 - [Jan/Feb 2005] - New Technology Magazine, NA - "New Technology Magazine - The First Word on Oilpatch Innovation"
"New Technology Magazine is the best source for stories about new and cost-saving technologies in the upstream oil and gas industry."
- 1622 - [May 4, 2014] - World News Today - Information Clearinghouse, Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers - "US Climate Bomb is Ticking: What the Gas Industry Doesn't Want You to Know"
""Truthout' - James Hansen's eye-opening article, "Game Over for the Climate," brought widespread attention to the Alberta Tar Sands in Canada as a source of carbon which, if tapped, would lead to irreversible global warming. There is another climate bomb in the United States, shale gas hydraulic fracking, which emits methane, more dangerous than CO2. While many rhetorically call natural gas a bridge to the clean energy future, new information is showing the opposite; natural gas will hasten climate change, poisons the air, land and water, and carries unacceptable risks to our health."
- 1632 - [Sesrch done on 4/1/2015] - Cornell University Cooperative Extension, Multiple - "Economics"
"All kinds of papers dealing with economic issue pertaining to gas development"
- 1634 - [February 5, 2012] - MDP, Maryland Department of Planning, Planning Data Services - "Finder Online"
"This Maryland Department of Planning (MDP) online product has an easy to use and easy to understand user interface."
- 1644 - [September 2011] - what-is-fracking.com, NA - "What is Fracking?"
"Learn how fracking uses water to extract oil and natural gas from shale plays, why fracking is an economic and energy security solution, and where fracking is safely taking place in America."
- 1648 - [July 24, 2014] - MGS - Maryland Geological Survey, MGS - "Is there a natural gas boom in Maryland’s future? Information Concerning the Marcellus Shale and the Search for Natural Gas in Western Maryland"
"Since roughly mid-2006, Garrett and Allegany Counties have been receiving considerable interest by energy companies as a possible source of natural gas from a geologic formation known as the Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale has long been known as an organic-rich shale in the Appalachians, occurring at the surface and in the subsurface from New York to eastern Tennessee. However, the Marcellus had never been a target for gas exploration because it was not economical for the companies involved.That is about to change, as drilling techniques developed in the past ten years are being used in the Marcellus in Pennsylvania (and to a lesser extent in West Virginia) and will soon be used in New York and Maryland. The techniques involve (1) hydraulic fracturing the shale by pumping water into the shale under pressure to create vertical fractures in the shale layer, while at the same time introducing sand into the rock to keep the fractures open once the water is removed; and (2) drilling ho"
- 1676 - [April 11, 2015] - Avalon Energy Services, admin - ""
"The development of a liquefied natural gas export trade was identified in a previous article as an influence that would put upward pressure on natural gas prices. To follow is an overview of where the US liquefied natural gas markets have been and where they may be headed. But first, what is liquefied natural gas?"
- 1678 - [April 14, 2015] - Inside Climate Newstitle:, Lisa Song, Jim Morris and David Hasemyer - "Inside Climate Newstitle:"
"When Lynn Buehring leaves her doctor's office in San Antonio she makes sure her inhaler is on the seat beside her, then steers her red GMC pickup truck southeast on U.S. 181, toward her home on the South Texas prairie.
About 40 miles down the road, between Poth and Falls City, drilling rigs, crude oil storage tanks and flares trailing black smoke appear amid the mesquite, live oak and pecan trees. Depending on the speed and direction of the wind, a yellow-brown haze might stretch across the horizon, filling the car with pungent odors. Sometimes Buehring's eyes burn, her chest tightens and pain stabs at her temples. On those days, she touches her inhaler for reassurance"
- 1688 - [April 13, 2015] - TXsharon's Bluedaze, TXsharon - "Publications"
"Links to a number of studies dealing with health issues from gas development activities. "
- 1697 - [April 9, 2015] - StateImpact | Pennsylvania, npr, Chris Amico, Danny DeBelius, Scott Detrow and Matt Stiles - "Shale Play - Natural gas Drilling in Pennsylvania"
"The Marcellus Shale has been underneath Pennsylvania for centuries, but the extraction of natural gas began only recently. The "fracking" boom is changing the landscape of northeastern and southwestern Pennsylvania. Use this tool to learn which operators are drilling, and where. Find active wells in your county or municipality — and see whether the drillers have been cited for violating state environmental regulations. Read more about the data."
- 1708 - [April 20, 2015] - StateImpact - npr, StateImpact - "DEP: The Department That Regulates and Oversees Drilling"
"Regulating natural gas drilling in the Marcellus Shale formation is one of many duties charged to the Department of Environmental Protection.
DEP is responsible for enforcing the state’s Oil and Gas Act, as well as state regulations on drinking water quality, air quality and the environmental health of rivers and streams."
- 1709 - [NA] - StateImpact - npr, StateImpact - "Who's in The Marcellus Shale Coalition, and What Does It Do?"
"The Marcellus Shale Coalition is the drilling industry’s top trade group within Pennsylvania.
40 energy companies, including Range Resources, Chesapeake Energy, Cabot Oil and Gas, and Shell Appalachia, are full members of the coalition. More than 100 companies with ancillary ties to the drilling industry are associate members. Companies pay $50,000 for full membership, and $15,000 for associate dues."
- 1713 - [April 21, 2015] - Earthquakes in Oklahoma, The Office of the Oklahoma Secretary of Energy and Environment - "Welcome to earthquakes.ok.gov"
"Throughout this website, you will find research, regulations, updates and news items related to Oklahoma’s recent earthquakes. We hope you find this website to be a meaningful resource for information related to the current situation and our state government’s collective response."
- 1714 - [April 2015] - Earthly Issues, NA - "Hydraulic Fracturing"
"Natural gas plays a key role in our nation’s clean energy future. The U.S. has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies enabling greater access to gas in shale formations. Responsible development of America's shale gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits.
This is an 'expose' of the development of natural gas in the U.S."
- 1745 - [NA] - Taylor & Francis Group, Various - "Special Issue: Facing the Challenges – Research on Shale Gas Extraction"
" Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A
Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering "
- 1750 - [April 24, 2015] - USGS, Tanya J. Gallegos and Brian Varela - "Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010 - Data Series 868"
"Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010...."
- 1767 - [June 9, 2009] - National Geographic, NA - "A search with the keyword "fracking""
"A search through the National Geographic archives gives a number of articles/productions about fracking."
- 1768 - [NA] - U.S.News NEWS, Debate Club - "Is Fracking a Good Idea?"
" In 2000, shale beds provided just 1 percent of America’s natural gas supply. Today, that figure stands at nearly 25 percent.
Most of that production increase is due to the growing popularity of hydraulic fracturing--known colloquially as “fracking”--a process used to release oil or gas from underground formations that are otherwise too difficult to mine. Over the past few years, advances in fracking technology have made tremendous reserves of natural gas in the United States economically recoverable for the first time. According to the Energy Information Administration, shale gas plays, or fields, in the United States--most notably the Marcellus, in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and New York, and the Barnett, in Texas--are said to contain enough natural gas to power the country for 110 years. "
- 1772 - [NA] - WellIntergity.net, WellIntergity.net - "Well Integrity Resources"
"resource on research dealing with well integrity."
- 1793 - [December 2013] - Green Choices, NA - "Articles and Policy Briefs"
"With support from the Park Foundation, the Heinz Endowments, and Cornell's Center for a Sustainable Future, a group of researchers centered at Cornell University has undertaken research to examine both the short-term (economic impact) and long-term (economic development) consequences of horizontal shale gas drilling. We also examined policies for monitoring the environmental impacts of shale gas drilling. "
- 1794 - [NA] - National Academies.org, NA - "Workshop on Governance of Risks of Shale Gas Development"
"This is the second workshop in a series. The first workshop in this series provided a comprehensive, evidence-based look at the scope, nature, and magnitude of environmental risks of unconventional shale gas development. This workshop will engage social scientists and practitioners from several research traditions to apply a variety of insights about risk management institutions to the suite of risks that were previously identified. Presentations will address the current status of governance systems in the United States that apply to shale gas development, and the challenges to those systems; capacity of state governments to perform risk governance functions; potential for coordinating state and local authorities for managing and reducing risks; potential for managing and reducing risk through non-traditional regulatory approaches; potential of voluntary agreements for managing and reducing risks; lessons from other countries; and public and stakeholder participation for managing and reducing risks."
- 1801 - [November 21, 2012] - Malaga Bay, NA - "The Hubbert Inheritance"
"The Settled Science of geology incorporates the quaint notion that the Earth’s petroleum deposits were formed via the “anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms”.
Western mainstream petroleum geologists accordingly classify petroleum as a “fossil fuel” [aka decomposed dinosaur detritus] because these “dead organisms” are “typically” believed to have been “buried” millions of years ago."
- 1814 - [May 1, 2015] - GRACE Communications Foundation, NA - "Hydraulic Fracturing - Key Resources and Reports"
"The widespread use of high-volume, slick-water horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a relatively new technological process for oil and gas extraction. More research and long-term assessment is needed to fully understand the impacts of the processes involved in fracking. This list resources is not intended to be comprehensive and will be updated on occasion. "
- 1815 - [NA] - NU Writing, Kristen Coletti - "Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region of the U.S."
"This paper reviews hydraulic fracturing in the Marcellus Shale emphasizing potential drinking water contamination via underground pathways for vertical gas and fracking fluid transport. It begins with an overview of the hydraulic fracturing process and the origins of shale gas, and then describes the regions where shale gas can be found and the composition of the fracking fluid. Potential sources of aquifer contamination are explored, with focus given to fractures as sources for vertical transport within rock layers. An overview of many contamination cases and claims across the United States is presented, followed by suggested improvements to the fracking process. Finally, federal and state legislature regarding hydraulic fracturing is reviewed."
- 1816 - [NA] - Paleontological Research Institution, NA - "Jointing and Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale"
"A discussion of natural fractures, or joints, present in the Marcellus Shale and the hydraulic fractures that are induced during unconventional gas drilling to extract natural gas."
- 1818 - [August 23, 2013] - Oilfield Review, Claudio Brufatto et. al. - "From Mud to Cement—Building Gas Wells"
"The science of constructing gas wells is thou- sands of years old. Legend has it that the Chinese dug the first natural gas well before 200 BC and transported the gas through bamboo pipelines. 1 Subsequent well-construction history is unclear until 1821, the year of the first US well drilled specifically for natural gas. 2 This well, in Fredonia, New York, USA, reached a depth of 27 ft [8.2 m] and produced enough gas to light dozens of burners at a nearby inn. Eventually the well was deepened and produced enough gas to provide lighting for the whole town of Fredonia. By this time, well-casing technology in the form of hollowed-out wooden logs had been developed for salt dome drilling, but it is not known whether such casing was used in the gas wells drilled during this era. In all likelihood, these first gas wells were leak-prone."
- 1819 - [Autumn 2003] - Energy in Depth, Steve Everley - "How Anti-Fracking Activists Deny Science: Air Emissions"
"...But reality tells a much different story. In fact, it is often opponents of hydraulic fracturing who categorically ignore scientific studies that contradict their own beliefs. Whether it’s groundwater contamination or air pollution, earthquakes or well casing failure rates – the available data, when taken in their entirety, tell a fundamentally different story from what critics have alleged. More often than not, activists leverage anecdotes and examples devoid of their full context in order to cast the widest net and implicate “fracking” as an inherent threat – a “tornado on the horizon” that kills people, as activist Sandra Steingraber puts it...."
- 1820 - [August 12, 2013] - Energy in Depth, Steve Everley - "How Anti-Fracking Activists Deny Science: Water Contamination"
"No single source of criticism of hydraulic fracturing is more pronounced than the claim that it pollutes groundwater. “Fracking,” according to the Sierra Club, is “known to contaminate drinking water.” Food & Water Watch says hydraulic fracturing “threatens the air we breathe, the water we drink, the communities we love and the climate on which we all depend.” The Center for Biological Diversity begins its litany of criticisms of hydraulic fracturing with: “Contaminated water.” In his FAQ page, Gasland director Josh Fox says water contamination from fracking is “very serious.”"
- 1821 - [August 13, 2013] - Energy in Depth, Steve Everley - "How Anti-Fracking Activists Deny Science: Public Health"
"...So, what’s the evidence provided to support these allegedly high public health risks? Chief among them is a study from the Colorado School of Public Health, which purported to draw a link between “serious health impacts” and proximity to oil and gas wells. The study suffered from significant flaws, including an inflation of exposure times by a shocking 900 percent, as well as the use of data that were embarrassingly out of date (and not reflective of the current operating environment). The authors also claimed to have been working closely with local environmental officials in Garfield County, Colo., who publicly denied any such cooperation...."
- 1826 - [2015] - raging chicken press, Wendy Lee - "Energy in Depth's Soldiers of Fracking- Fortune: Why We Must Understand Who They Are and What They Do"
"In her excellent PR Watch piece, ““Energy In Depth” – A Reporters’ Guide to Its Founding, Funding, and Flacks,” Lisa Graves spells out in copiously well-documented detail the purposes and funding sources of what can only be called a propaganda machine for corporations involved in hydraulic fracturing:..."
- 1827 - [December 30, 2012] - TheTribune, Sharon Dunn - "Fracking 101: Breaking down the most important part of today's oil, gas drilling"
"The two- to three-day process of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas is perhaps one of the most misunderstood drilling practices, becoming as bad of a word in some circles as a racial slur."
- 1829 - [October 19, 2013] - Energy Information Administration, EIA - "Drilling Sideways -- A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application - DOE/EIA-TR-0565"
"The use of horizontal drilling technology in oil exploration, development, and production operations has grown rapidly over the past 5 years. This report reviews the technology, its history, and its current domestic application. It also considers related technologies that will increasingly affect horizontal drilling’s future"
- 1858 - [May 12, 2015] - Niobrarachalk.com - Powered by Shale Plays Media, Greeley Tribune, Colo. - "Oil, gas spill report for May 11"
"The following spills were reported to the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission in the past two weeks.
Information is based on Form 19, which operators must fill out detailing the leakage/spill events. Any spill release which may impact waters of the state must be reported as soon as practical. Any spill of five barrels or more must be reported within 24 hours, and any spill of one barrel or more which occurs outside secondary containment, such as metal or earthen berms, must also be reported within 24 hours, according to COGCC rules."
- 1864 - [May 13, 2015] - Shell Oil, Shell Oil - "The Origins of Oil and Gas"
"The story of oil and gas begins hundreds of millions of years ago when the Earth was covered in swamplands filled with huge trees and the seas were teaming with microscopic plants and animals. The oil and gas deposits started forming about 350 to 290 million years ago during the Carboniferous Period, which gets its name from the basic element
in oil and gas: carbon. A popular belief is that oil comes from dead dinosaurs. It doesn’t. The giant reptiles lived mostly from 250 to 65 million years ago, and most scientists believe oil actually comes from the tiniest plants and animals that preceded them."
- 1867 - [NA] - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation - "Final SGEIS on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program (May 2015)"
"The Final Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement (Final SGEIS) was released on May 13, 2015, completing the environmental review of high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). The Findings statement will be issued not less than 10 calendar days after the publication of the Final SGEIS."
- 1877 - [January 8, 2015] - MarcellusGas.Org, MarcellusGas.Org - "Related Sites and Links"
"Information Related to Pennsylvania Deep Gas Well Activity.
A free membership allows viewing of certain products. For a $20 annual fee (as of 5/16, 2015) access to a lot of information is given. This is very useful for a research project."
- 1878 - [May 16, 2015] - TEDX - The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, TEDX - "Chemicals in Natural Gas Operations | Peer-reviewed Papers"
"Links to peer reviewed articles concerned with chemicals in natural gas operations affecting air, health, water, ecology, wastewater, geology, policy, review, and others.
Unfortunately, many of the articles can only be obtained by paying a fee."
- 1886 - [May 19, 2015] - StateImpact - Pennsylvania | Energy.Environment.Economy, NA - "The Pennsylvania Guide to Hydraulic Fracturing, or "Fracking""
"Slick water hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” is a technology used to extract natural gas, and oil, that lies within a shale rock formation thousands of feet beneath the earth’s surface.
Combined with another technique called “horizontal drilling,” natural gas companies are able to drill previously untapped reserves."
- 1888 - [NA] - Questerre Energy Corporation, Questerre Energy Corporation - "Shale Gas 101"
"Shale gas is natural gas stored in rocks that are rich in organic material such as dark colored shale. Gas shales are often both the source rocks and the reservoir for the natural gas, which is stored in three ways:
* adsorbed onto insoluble organic matter,kerogen that forms a molecular or atomic film
* trapped in the pore spaces of the fine grained sediments interbedded with shale much like conventional reservoirs
* confined in fractures within the shale itself
Organic-rich shales, which traditionally have been viewed as source and cap rocks for hydrocarbon reservoirs, are also now viewed as reservoir rocks."
- 1891 - [May 14, 2015] - Bucknell University, Bucknell University - "Marcellus Shale Initiative Publications Database"
"This database focuses on scientific, technical, sociological, and economic aspects of gas shale production and hydraulic fracturing in the Marcellus shale and other shale plays. It lists primarily print-based publications and how to obtain them. The database does NOT provide coverage of websites, blogs, news articles, newsletters, or other media. Regulatory and legal documents which can undergo frequent revision and vary widely by state are generally outside the scope of the database."
- 1908 - [May 25, 2015] - Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - "The Pennsylvania State Forest Shale Gas Infrastructure Interactive Map"
"Use the interactive map to view oil/gas ownership (including lease tracts, severed rights, river leases, and gas storage fields) and oil/gas infrastructure (including pipelines, pads, impoundments, compressor stations, and limits of cleared area) on State Forest land. Click on the Pads or Pipelines on the map to see more info, or use the search widget to zoom in to get a closer look"
- 1909 - [May 27, 2015] - Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - "Natural Gas Development and State Forests"
"DCNR is charged with managing the state forest system for many uses and values—including natural gas development—all while protecting its ecological integrity and wild character. Since 1947, DCNR has overseen controlled natural gas extraction on state forest lands. Recently, the discovery of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania has generated significant interest in the state forest system for developing natural gas resources. Approximately 1.5 million acres of the 2.2 million-acre state forest system are underlain by Marcellus and other shale gas formations, making it a key venue for developing this important energy source in Pennsylvania. DCNR is committed to managing natural gas development in way that ensures long-term forest health and its third-party “well-managed” certification."
- 1910 - [December 12, 2012] - Climate Central, Bobby Magill - "Fracking the USA: New Map Shows 1 Million Oil, Gas Wells"
"If you’re wondering where oil and gas production and hydraulic fracturing are happening near you, FracTracker has a new mapping tool that will help you find out.
Researchers at FracTracker, an independent oil and gas research group that started as a mapping project at the University of Pittsburgh’s Center for Healthy Environments and Communities, analyzed oil and gas well location data for all 50 states and created a map showing where most of those wells are, including wells that have been fracked and those that haven’t."
- 1911 - [NA] - EnergyFactsPA, EnergyFactsPA - "Natural Gas"
"The Marcellus Shale formation is believed to be the largest unconventional natural gas reservoir in America, and its exploration has been coined a modern-day gold rush. More than a mile underground, this once unreachable gas is now recoverable thanks to advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology.
Development of the Marcellus Shale has the potential to create 111,000 jobs and contribute $987 million in revenue to Harrisburg by 2011. However, many feel the environmental risks posed by drilling outweigh the benefits in job growth and overall economic prosperity. In response to these concerns, many proposals exist to impose additional taxes and regulations on the industry.
Presently, drilling regulations in Pennsylvania are among the strictest in the nation."
- 1912 - [March 27, 2014] - Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association - "PA Oil and Gas"
"The world’s first commercial oil well was drilled in 1859 in Titusville, Venango County, and natural gas production in Pennsylvania dates back to 1881. Over the years, the industry has provided good jobs and contributed significantly to local economies while safely and successfully producing the crude oil and natural gas that is essential to our way of life."
- 1913 - [NA] - USA TODAY, Dan Vergano - "Natural gas gold rush: Is your state next?"
"The script might not play out exactly the same in each new community touched by the nationwide boom in natural gas and oil drilling, but the changes have a familiar echo:..."
- 1914 - [NA] - Huff Post Green, James Gerken - "'Fracking By The Numbers' Report Urges U.S. To Ban 'Environmental Nightmare'"
"What impact has natural gas development had on the U.S.?
"Fracking by the Numbers," a new report from advocacy group Environment America, seeks to quantify the environmental toll of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking."
- 1917 - [NA] - About Travel | About.com, Albrecht Powell - "Marcellus Shale"
"Have questions about leasing your land to a natural gas driller such as Range Resources? Worried about how the Marcellus Shale wells will affect ground water? Want to learn more about how drilling may impact your local community? These online resources offer a variety of facts and opinions from people and organizations on both sides of the Marcellus Shale debate."
- 1918 - [March 30, 2015] - Marcellus Shale Coalition, Marcellus Shale Coalition - "Library - Studies, Reports and Presentations"
"A list of studies, reports and presentations about various aspects related to Marcellus Shale"
- 1923 - [May 19, 2015] - CNBC, Andrew Zaleski, special to CNBC.com - "Technology for a Saudi fracking boom moves closer to reality"
" The key to an energy boom is simple: Build a technology to get at the oil and gas that geologists already know is trapped in various subterranean, or subsea, formations.
The fracking boom in the U.S. is the obvious example. Extracting seabed methane hydrate is another huge bet—energy-starved Japan has made that.
Saudi Arabia could be next to use new technology to get at currently trapped gigantic reserves of oil and gas. A small pilot project about to get under way is the energy market equivalent of a moonshot, but it could allow a Saudi fracking boom to move one step closer to reality."
- 1926 - [May 6, 2015] - HuffPost Green, Lynne Peeples - "Fracking Industry Distorts Science To Deceive Public And Policymakers, Says Watchdog Group"
"The oil and gas industry sponsors and spins research to shape the scientific debate over horizontal hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. That's the conclusion of a watchdog group's analysis of more than 130 documents distributed to policymakers by industry representatives."
- 1927 - [5/29/2015] - Alleghany County, PA, Various - "Studies"
"The production of oil and natural gas from deep shale formations and other “tight” reservoirs, and the u se of hydraulic fracturing, have been closely regulated and extensively studied for many years. The ongoing effort to closely monitor these activities has yielded many studies and reports.
This is a list of industry sanctioned studies and reports."
- 1928 - [February 21, 2015] - PSE Health Energy, Jake Hays, Seth B.C. Shonkoff - "Toward an understanding of the environmental and public health impacts of shale gas development: an analysis of the peer-reviewed scientific literature, 2009-2014"
"In this analysis, we reviewed the direction of findings among papers that assessed the association between shale and tight gas development and air, water, and public health impacts. In each subject area, we found that the majority of studies indicated negative impacts of shale and/or tight gas development on the outcome of interest...."
- 1930 - [January 2015] - BreakingEnergy, Environmental Defense Fund Energy Exchange Blog - "Colorado Blazes The Path On Oil And Gas Data"
"This May has truly been a banner month for transparency of the oil and gas industry. To start, FracFocus, the state-run, national hydraulic fracturing chemical disclosure database,released chemical information of nearly 100,000 wells in raw digital format. On the same day, Colorado’s Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) put two key datasets online that will also increase what we know about oil and gas development."
- 1931 - [May 19, 2015] - Environmental Defense Fund, Adam Peltz - "FracFocus Enters the Era of Big Data"
"The identity of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluid has been a key policy issue since the beginning of the shale revolution a decade ago. Now, that chemical information just became publicly available in a whole new way."
- 1938 - [May 30, 2015] - Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - "The Pennsylvania State Forest Shale Gas Infrastructure Interactive Map"
"Use the interactive map to view oil/gas ownership (including lease tracts, severed rights, river leases, and gas storage fields) and oil/gas infrastructure (including pipelines, pads, impoundments, compressor stations, and limits of cleared area) on State Forest land. Click on the Pads or Pipelines on the map to see more info, or use the search widget to zoom in to get a closer look"
- 1939 - [May 27, 2015] - Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - "Natural Gas Development and State Forests"
"DCNR is charged with managing the state forest system for many uses and values—including natural gas development—all while protecting its ecological integrity and wild character. Since 1947, DCNR has overseen controlled natural gas extraction on state forest lands. Recently, the discovery of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania has generated significant interest in the state forest system for developing natural gas resources. Approximately 1.5 million acres of the 2.2 million-acre state forest system are underlain by Marcellus and other shale gas formations, making it a key venue for developing this important energy source in Pennsylvania. DCNR is committed to managing natural gas development in way that ensures long-term forest health and its third-party “well-managed” certification."
- 1940 - [December 12, 2012] - Climate Central, Bobby Magill - "Fracking the USA: New Map Shows 1 Million Oil, Gas Wells"
"If you’re wondering where oil and gas production and hydraulic fracturing are happening near you, FracTracker has a new mapping tool that will help you find out.
Researchers at FracTracker, an independent oil and gas research group that started as a mapping project at the University of Pittsburgh’s Center for Healthy Environments and Communities, analyzed oil and gas well location data for all 50 states and created a map showing where most of those wells are, including wells that have been fracked and those that haven’t."
- 1974 - [June 2015] - Chesapeake Energy, Chesapeake Energy - "Investor Presentations - UBS Global Oil and Gas Conference"
"Chesapeake is the second-largest producer of natural gas and the 10th largest producer of oil and natural gas liquids in the U.S., with an industry-leading portfolio of high-quality unconventional assets in top onshore plays. A series of presentations made by Chesapeake Energy at the UBS Global Oil and Gas Conference, including Utica Shale Presentation."
- 1984 - [April 10, 2013] - EnergyFactsPA, EnergyFactsPA - "Natural Gas"
"The Marcellus Shale formation is believed to be the largest unconventional natural gas reservoir in America, and its exploration has been coined a modern-day gold rush. More than a mile underground, this once unreachable gas is now recoverable thanks to advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology.
Development of the Marcellus Shale has the potential to create 111,000 jobs and contribute $987 million in revenue to Harrisburg by 2011. However, many feel the environmental risks posed by drilling outweigh the benefits in job growth and overall economic prosperity. In response to these concerns, many proposals exist to impose additional taxes and regulations on the industry.
Presently, drilling regulations in Pennsylvania are among the strictest in the nation."
- 1985 - [May 8, 2012] - Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association - "PA Oil and Gas"
"The world’s first commercial oil well was drilled in 1859 in Titusville, Venango County, and natural gas production in Pennsylvania dates back to 1881. Over the years, the industry has provided good jobs and contributed significantly to local economies while safely and successfully producing the crude oil and natural gas that is essential to our way of life."
- 1986 - [NA] - USA TODAY, Dan Vergano - "Natural gas gold rush: Is your state next?"
"The script might not play out exactly the same in each new community touched by the nationwide boom in natural gas and oil drilling, but the changes have a familiar echo:..."
- 1987 - [NA] - Huff Post Green, James Gerken - "'Fracking By The Numbers' Report Urges U.S. To Ban 'Environmental Nightmare'"
"What impact has natural gas development had on the U.S.?
"Fracking by the Numbers," a new report from advocacy group Environment America, seeks to quantify the environmental toll of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking."
- 1990 - [NA] - About Travel | About.com, Albrecht Powell - "Marcellus Shale"
"Have questions about leasing your land to a natural gas driller such as Range Resources? Worried about how the Marcellus Shale wells will affect ground water? Want to learn more about how drilling may impact your local community? These online resources offer a variety of facts and opinions from people and organizations on both sides of the Marcellus Shale debate."
- 1991 - [March 30, 2015] - Marcellus Shale Coalition, Marcellus Shale Coalition - "Library - Studies, Reports and Presentations"
"A list of studies, reports and presentations about various aspects related to Marcellus Shale"
- 2012 - [April 4, 2011] - NRDC - Natural Resources Defense Council, NRDC - "Unchecked FrackingThreatens Health, Water Supplies"
"Weak safeguards and inadequate oversight have allowed oil and gas producers to run roughshod over communities across the country with their extraction and production activities for too long, resulting in contaminated water supplies, dangerous air pollution, destroyed streams, and devastated landscapes. Our state and federal leaders have failed to hold them to account, leaving the American people unprotected. Many companies don't play by the few rules that do exist; and industry has used its political power at every turn to gain exemptions from environmental laws designed to protect our air and water."
- 2020 - [June 11, 2015] - NeoGap, NA - "Homeowners and Gas Drilling Leases: Boom or Bust?"
"Gas companies covet the shale gas deposits lying under homes and farms in New York’s Marcellus Shale region and are pursuing leasing agreements with area property owners. Many homeowners and farmers in need of cash are inclined to say yes. In making their argument, gas companies reassure property owners that the drilling processes and chemicals used are safe."
- 2021 - [June 11, 2015] - Water Research Center, Brian Oram - "Helping to Improve Water Quality & Watershed Management"
"Website Dedicated to Information and Free Resources for Private Well Owners, Evaluation of Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems, Private Well Water Testing, Pennsylvania Water Quality and Education/Outreach Programs - We Need Your Help to Spread the Word!"
- 2022 - [March 7, 2012] - EarthJustice, EarthJustice - "Our Story"
"Earthjustice uses the power of law and the strength of partnership to protect people’s health; to preserve magnificent places and wildlife; to advance clean energy; and to combat climate change."
- 2030 - [July 2012] - PetroWiki, PetroWiki - "Wellbore flow performance"
"The pressure drop experienced in lifting reservoir fluids to the surface is one of the main factors affecting well deliverability. As much as 80% of the total pressure loss in a flowing well may occur in lifting the reservoir fluid to the surface. Wellbore flow performance relates to estimating the pressure-rate relationship in the wellbore as the reservoir fluids move to the surface through the tubulars."
- 2031 - [April 29, 2014] - EPA, NA - "Proceedings of the Technical Workshops for the Hydraulic Fracturing Study: Well Construction & Operations"
"The technical workshops centered around three goals: (1) inform EPA of the current technology and practices being used in hydraulic fracturing, (2) identify research related to the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, and (3) provide an opportunity for EPA scientists to interact with technical experts.
EPA invited technical experts from the oil and natural gas industry, consulting firms, laboratories, state and federal agencies, and environmental organizations to participate in the workshops. "