Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage

Hydraulic fracturing

Links describing one of the processes used to break the shale in order to release the trapped gas.

- 1348 - [February 11, 2015] - Tulsa World, DAVID WETHE - "Refracking: Drillers take second crack at fracking old wells to cut cost"
"Beset by falling prices, the oil industry is looking at about 50,000 existing wells in the U.S. that may be candidates for a second wave of fracking, using techniques that didn’t exist when they were first drilled.
New wells can cost as much as $8 million, while re-fracking costs about $2 million, significant savings when the price of crude is hovering close to $50 a barrel, according to Halliburton Co., the world’s biggest provider of hydraulic fracturing services."
- 1363 - [2012] - Ceres, Ceres - "Gas Flaring as Seen from Space"
"In North Dakota’s Bakken shale region, widespread flaring across millions of acres lights up the night sky, burning off enough energy each day to heat half a million homes. Excessive flaring of natural gas affects regional air quality and creates significant greenhouse gas emissions that investors are seeking to reduce."
- 1420 - [NA] - - Office of Fossil Energy, - "Hydraulic Fracturing Technology"
"Hydraulic fracturing is a technique in which large volumes of water and sand, and small volumes of chemical additives are injected into low-permeability subsurface formations to increase oil or natural gas flow. The injection pressure of the pumped fluid creates fractures that enhance gas and fluid flow, and the sand or other coarse material holds the fractures open. Most of the injected fluid flows back to the wellbore and is pumped to the surface.
Hydraulic fracturing has been used for over 60 years in over one million wells. Recently, public concern about potential impacts on drinking water and other environmental damage has significantly grown. Consequently, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2010 to conduct a study of this practice to better understand any potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water and groundwater. DOE/NETL is working closely with the EPA as it carries out the study and is also collaborating with the Department of the Interior to enhance understanding of these risks"
- 1422 - [NA] - EPA, United States Environmental Protecting Energy, EPA - "Natural Gas Extraction - Hydraulic Fracturing"
"Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The U.S. has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies enabling greater access to gas in shale formations. Responsible development of America's shale gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits.
EPA is working with states and other key stakeholders to help ensure that natural gas extraction does not come at the expense of public health and the environment. The Agency's focus and obligations under the law are to provide oversight, guidance and, where appropriate, rule-making that achieve the best possible protections for the air, water and land where Americans live, work and play. The Agency is investing in improving our scientific understanding of hydraulic fracturing, providing regulatory clarity with respect to existing laws, and using existing authorities where appropriate to enhance health and environmental safeguards."
- 1488 - [NA] - Cornell Pump Company, Cornell Pump Company - "Water Transfer. Hydraulic Fracturing"
"Fracking Pumps. Images and descriptions of pumps used in hydraulic fracturing."
- 1561 - [November 12, 2014] - STI Group, STI Group - "A Look At The Hydraulic Fracking Process and How It Works"
"In the first part of this three part article series on hydraulic fracking we provided a brief overview of the process and discussed how it has changed and developed over time. This second part will get more in-depth about the process of hydraulic fracking itself, how it works, and what fluids and equipment are needed to make it recover oil and gas."
- 1694 - [March 5, 2015] - Seeking Alpha, Omar Jama - "Refracking US Oil And Gas Wells"
"Schlumberger's (NYSE:SLB) 1Q 2015 conference call highlighted what could be a growing trend in the US oil patch, the refracking of older horizontal oil and gas wells. The massive 40+% decline in drilling and fracking activity means lots of equipment now sits idle and the 15% workforce reductions SLB has announced to date means that a lot of work crews are still sitting around."
- 1722 - [NA] - EcoWatch - Transforming Green, Anastasia Pantsios - "Nation’s Strongest Fracking Ban Bill Introduced to Protect Public Lands"
"Congressmembers Jan Schakowsky of Illinois and Mark Pocan of Wisconsin, both Democrats, have made no secret of their strong opposition to fracking. Last December, for instance, as new rules were being formulated on the opening new areas of public lands to energy exploration and extraction, they introduced a bill to ban fracking entirely on public lands."
- 1756 - [January 21, 2015] - Cornell University Library, Z.P. Bazant, M. Salviato, V.T. Chau - "Why Fracking Works and How to Optimize It"
"Although spectacular advances in hydraulic fracturing, aka fracking, have taken place and many aspects are well understood by now, the topology, geometry and evolution of the crack system hydraulically produced in the shale still remains an enigma. Expert opinions differ widely and fracture mechanicians must wonder why fracking works. Fracture mechanics of individual pressurized cracks has recently been clarified but the vital problem of stability of interacting hydraulic cracks escaped attention."
- 1757 - [June 28, 2014] - Cornell University Library, J. Quinn Norris, Donald L. Turcotte, John B. Rundle - "Anisotropy in Fracking: A Percolation Model for Observed Micro-seismicity"
"Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) using high pressures and a low viscosity fluid allow the extraction of large quantiles of oil and gas from very low permeability shale formations. The initial production of oil and gas at depth leads to high pressures and an extensive distribution of natural fractures which reduce the pressures. With time these fractures heal, sealing the remaining oil and gas in place. High volume fracking opens the healed fractures allowing the oil and gas to flow the horizontal productions wells."
- 1780 - [June 22, 2012] - Baker Hughes, Baker Hughes - "Hydraulic Fracturing: An Environmentally Responsible Technology for Ensuring Our Energy Future"
"Since the late 1940s, hydraulic fracturing technology has been used in more than a million U.S. wells to safely unlock useful oil and gas reserves that would otherwise remain trapped deep within the Earth. The principles of the process have not changed since the early days, but modern hydraulic fracturing relies on vastly improved technology to ensure its continued contribution to a safe,
environmentally responsible energy future."
- 1795 - [August 16, 2013] - EcoWatch, Briana Kerensky, Food & Water Watch - "Mapping the Dangers of Fracking"
"It feels like spring only just arrived, but as of tomorrow we’re less than a month away from the official start of summer: Memorial Day. National parks and forests across the country will welcome millions of hikers, campers, photographers “picnickers,” and others this summer: people looking to leave home for a while and enjoy America’s natural beauty.
But oil and gas corporations want to visit U.S. public lands for a very different reason: to profit off their oil and gas reserves via fracking.
Did you know that about 20 percent of U.S. oil and gas reserves and resources are beneath federal public lands?"
- 1887 - [May 19, 2015] - Southern Environmental Law Center, NA - "Court reinstates fracking moratorium in North Carolina"
"Wake County Superior Court has granted a preliminary injunction sought by SELC to stop the state’s Mining and Energy Commission from accepting or processing permit applications for fracking in the state or from creating any drilling units. The decision effectively reinstates a moratorium on fracking pending the outcome of a constitutional challenge to the composition of the Commission itself."
- 1898 - [May 20, 2015] - EcoWatch, Anastasia Pantsios - "Judge Says No to Fracking"
"A judge in North Carolina has blocked the start of fracking in that state over a challenge to the membership of the commission charged with issuing the permits.
“Finally some good news in our long battle to keep fracking out of NC!” exulted North Carolina environmental nonprofit Haw River Assembly, one of the parties to the lawsuit, on its Facebook page."
- 1922 - [May 30, 2015] -, Daniel Moore | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - "After months of prep, Consol Energy begins fracking first wells at airport"
"A dense cluster of pipes, pumps, silos and engines hummed harmoniously across a rugged field on a wet morning earlier this month.
“This is about as much excitement as you see on a fracking site,” said Steve Snyder, completions manager for Consol Energy Inc.
Mr. Snyder was referring to Pad 2, the first of six total drilling sites to be developed by the Canonsburg energy company on property owned by the Pittsburgh International Airport. With the help of Halliburton, Consol began drilling the top vertical portions of six wells on the pad in August, then drilled the horizontal portions in December with an electric rig. The company began fracking April 1."
- 1963 - [June 9, 2015] - Public Herald, Melissa Troutman - "Facts Behind The Daily Show's Fracking Video"
"Impacted residents of the most heavily drilled and fracked county in the largest shale gas extraction zone in the United States – the Marcellus Shale – appeared in a segment of The Daily Show on Comedy Central March 27th.
There isn’t much that’s funny about fracking – the toxin-laced technology used to extract methane, or natural gas – except maybe for the ‘funny business’ that seems to surround it. But The Daily Show managed to poke fun anyway."
- 1967 - [November 12, 2013] -, - "Fracking the Future"
"How unconventional gas threatens our water, health and climate."
- 1971 - [Agust 16, 2015] - IRRC Institute, Susan Williams - "Discovering Shale Gas: An Investor Guide to Hydraulic Fracturing"
"The economic benefits of U.S. shale gas development are substantial.
The degree to which companies and their investors can capitalize on this opportunity and profitably tap these vast domestic shale resources depends on reducing environmental and social risks to gain public support. Public apprehension over potential adverse environmental impacts and industrialization of rural and suburban areas have heightened the regulatory, reputational and legal risks associated with shale gas development and, in some instances, led to restrictions on drilling. "
- 1997 - [June 4, 2015] - EcoWatch, Anastasia Pantsios - "Judge Says No to Fracking"
"A judge in North Carolina has blocked the start of fracking in that state over a challenge to the membership of the commission charged with issuing the permits.
“Finally some good news in our long battle to keep fracking out of NC!” exulted North Carolina environmental nonprofit Haw River Assembly, one of the parties to the lawsuit, on its Facebook page."