Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage

Flowback

Articles on the composition and content of the waters that are recovered after hydraulic fracturing.

- 1083 - [December 18, 2012] - Science Daily, ScienceDaily - "Analysis of Marcellus flowback finds high levels of ancient brines"
"Brine water that flows back from gas wells in the Marcellus Shale region after hydraulic fracturing is many times more salty than seawater, with high contents of various elements, including radium and barium. The chemistry is consistent with brines formed during the Paleozoic era, a new study found."
- 1163 - [January 26, 2015] - Marcellus.com, David Conti | The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review - "Long-term solution for wastewater disposal eludes shale gas industry"
"Defining wastewater disposal in the Marcellus shale fields has been a moving target.
Drillers initially sent millions of gallons to public water treatment plants, until regulators said the plants were not equipped to properly clean the salt- and metal-laden water that comes from shale gas wells. The traditional method of injecting it back into deep wells is less feasible in Pennsylvania, which has few such wells, and Ohio is accepting less wastewater because of potential links between injection and earthquakes."
- 1207 - [NA] - about money, Wendy Lyons Sunshine - "Waste Water Byproducts of Shale Gas Drilling"
"During hydrofracking, millions of gallons of water mixed with industrial chemicals and proppant (sand or ceramic particles) are blasted into the well bore to release natural gas.
Waste water that comes back up out of a shale gas well goes by two names: flowback and produced water. These terms are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings.
The amount of flowback and produced water varies greatly among wells, and not all shale formations produce a lot of water."
- 1300 - [July 2010] - Oil & Natural Gas Technology, DOE Award No.: FWP 49462, John A. Veil - Argonne National Laboratory - "Water Management Technologies Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers"
"There is a great deal of interest in natural gas production in the Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus offers hope of substantial energy resources and economic benefits, but also creates various environmental and societal issues. This report describes three types of water issues that arise from shale gas development in the Marcellus Shale. Those three issues are:
1. Controlling the stormwater runoff from disturbed areas,
2. Obtaining sufficient freshwater supply to conduct frac jobs on new wells, and
3. Managing the flowback water and produced water from the well."
- 1364 - [February 11, 2015] - LA Times, Julie Cart - "High levels of benzene found in fracking waste water"
"oping to better understand the health effects of oil fracking, the state in 2013 ordered oil companies to test the chemical-laden waste water extracted from wells.
Data culled from the first year of those tests found significant concentrations of the human carcinogen benzene in this so-called "flowback fluid." In some cases, the fracking waste liquid, which is frequently reinjected into groundwater, contained benzene levels thousands of times greater than state and federal agencies consider safe.
The testing results from hundreds of wells showed, on average, benzene levels 700 times higher than federal standards allow, according to a Times analysis of the state data."
- 1547 - [NA] - NETL, University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University - "Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production"
"The goal is to develop a sustainable approach for water management in the Marcellus Shale play, in which flowback water is economically treated on site and reused for hydraulic fracturing adjacent wells. Optimal treatment processes will be identified, and acid mine drainage (AMD) water will be examined as a potential supplement to flowback water used for hydraulic fracturing. Researchers will also investigate the effects of barium sulfate (BaSO4) precipitation on well surfaces and fracture spaces."
- 1562 - [November 29, 2013] - About Money, Wendy Lyons Sunshine - "Waste Water Byproducts of Shale Gas Drilling"
"During hydrofracking, millions of gallons of water mixed with industrial chemicals and proppant (sand or ceramic particles) are blasted into the well bore to release natural gas. In the Marcellus Shale formation in the northeastern
U.S., for example, fracking a single well can require 1 million to 5 million gallons of this water mixture.
Waste water that comes back up out of a shale gas well goes by two names: flowback and produced water. These terms are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings"
- 1565 - [NA] - About News, Wendy Lyons Sunshine - "Flowback and Produced Water Are Hazardous"
"Flowback and produced water are considered hazardous waste and must be disposed of safely. According to the EPA, produced waters are typically disposed of in deep wells or “non-potable coastal waters.”
Flowback and produced water can contain salt, industrial chemicals, hydrocarbons, and radioactive materials."