Chemicals Mixed with Water
Different kinds of chemicals are mixed with the water to make it slicker so that pumping is easier, gels to suspend the sand particles, or proppants, to keep the fracture cracks open, and others to enhance cementing and cracking the shale.
- - 1367 - [NA] - Frac Focus, Frac Focus - "What Chemicals Are Used"
- "As previously noted, chemicals perform many functions in a hydraulic fracturing job. Although there are dozens to hundreds of chemicals which could be used as additives, there are a limited number which are routinely used in hydraulic fracturing. The following is a list of the chemicals used most often. This chart is sorted alphabetically by the Product Function to make it easier for you to compare to the fracturing records."
- - 1560 - [April 25, 2014] - USA Today, Trevor Hughes - "Study: Many common chemicals found in fracking fluid"
- "Fracking fluid used to help boost oil well production contains many of the same chemicals found in toothpaste, laundry detergent and laxatives, a new study says.
Scientists from the University of Colorado-Boulder obtained and tested fracking fluid samples from five states. Drilling companies zealously guard the specific recipes for their fluid, which helps fracture underground rock deposits to release trapped oil and gas that otherwise wouldn't come out. The technique, although long used in the industry, has gained new popularity over the past decade and allows drillers to extract oil and gas from areas that would otherwise be dry."
- - 1570 - [March 24, 2015] - Audebon, Tessa Stuart - "Big Oil:s Best-Kept Secret"
- "To keep itself off the Toxics Release Inventory, the fossil fuel industry might have a new trick up its sleeve—putting state attorneys general on the payroll.
By now most of us have a basic grasp of the way fracking works: Pumps shoot a high-pressure cocktail of water, silt, and chemicals hundreds of feet underground, shattering ancient rock and releasing pockets of natural gas, a whole lot of money, and a brew of toxic byproducts. What we don’t know is exactly how much of which toxins are collecting in the soil, seeping into groundwater, or wafting into nearby communities. Fossil fuel companies have kept it that way, with help from governors, congressmen, senators, and, increasingly, state attorneys general."