Garrett County and Natural Gas - Risks and Benefits

A selection of categorized links to allow one to assess the risks and benefits of gas development in Garrett Conty.

Garrett County Montage

Cement Quality

Links dealing specifically with cement. Cement is the key to well integrity.

- 1429 - [April 12, 2014] - The Columbus Dispatch, Laura Arenschield - "Fracking study: Correctly built wells don't contaminate water"
"Fracking — fracturing shale to free up oil and gas — does not inherently contaminate nearby drinking water with methane, a new study has found.
But poorly constructed wells with leaky casings or faulty cement can allow methane to leach into drinking water, according to the study, published yesterday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences."
- 1604 - [June 26, 2014] - The Tyee, Andrew Nikiforuk | TheTyee.ca - "Shale Gas: How Often Do Fracked Wells Leak?"
"One of the boldest claims made by the shale gas industry goes like this: oil and gas companies have drilled and fractured a million oil and gas wells with nary a problem.
In other words fracture fluid or methane leaks are "a rare phenomenon."
But industry data disproves this dubious claim says Cornell University engineer Anthony Ingraffea, the main source for this series, who has studied the non-linear science of rock fractures for three decades. "
- 1605 - [Jamuary 9, 2013] - Oilfield Review, Claudio Brufatto et al. - "From Mud to Cement — Building Gas Wells"
"As demand for natural gas increases, wellbore construction across gas-bearing formations takes center stage. With few cost-effective remedial measures available, prevention of annular gas flow and sustained casing pressure is key to drilling and completing long-lasting gas wells.
The science of constructing gas wells is thou- sands of years old. Legend has it that the Chinese dug the first natural gas well before 200 BC and transported the gas through bamboo pipelines.
Subsequent well-construction history is unclear until 1821, the year of the first US well drilled specifically for natural gas. This well, in Fredonia, New York, USA, reached a depth of 27 ft [8.2 m] and produced enough gas to light dozens of burners at a nearby inn."
- 1608 - [March 28, 2015] - Drilling & Completetions, New Technologies Magazine, James Mahoney - ""Only in Canada, Eh?: - Zeolite-based Cement Leavns the Mix in Downhole Applications"
"An article about a unique cement containing mineral mined in Western Canada that could acilitate weel completions - www.ntm.nickles.com"
- 1610 - [NA] - PSE - Physicians Scientists & Engineers for Healthy Energy, Anthony R. Ingraffea , PH.D., P.E - "Fluid Migration Mechanisms due to Faulty Well Design and/or Construction: an Overview and Recent Experiences in the Pennsylvania Marcellus Play"
"An overall description of mechanisms by which oil and gas wells can develop gas and other fluid leaks can be found in Dusseault et al. (2000). These mechanisms can be exacerbated with repeated pressurization of the casing, with open-annulus sections along the casing, and with high gas pressures encountering curing cement or entering such open-hole sections. All of these exacerbating factors lead to more rapid occurrence and upward growth of circumferential fractures, essentially disbonding, in the rock-cement and /or the cement-casing interface."
- 1611 - [October, 2012] - Society of Petroleum Engineers, Maurice B. Dusseault, Malcolm N. Gray and Pawel A. Nawrocki - "Why Oilwells Leak: Cement Behavior and Long-Term Consequences"
"Oil and gas wells can develop gas leaks along the casing years after production has ceased and the well has been plugged and abandoned (P&A). Explanatory mechanisms include channelling, poor cake removal, shrinkage, and high cement permeability. The reason is probably cement shrinkage that leads to circumferential fractures that are propagated upward by the slow accumulation of gas under pressure behind the casing. Assuming this hypothesis is robust, it must lead to better practice and better cement formulations."
- 1612 - [2000] - Shale Resource Centre.Canada, NA - "Four Facts on Dusseault's Well Integrity Report"
"Maurice Dusseault, along with other academic researchers, recently released a report on well integrity, which suggests that large percentages of natural gas wells are leaking methane into water supplies and into the air. Unsurprisingly, the report led to headlines like this: “Leaking natural gas wells spew methane, report warns.”
This is a very serious conclusion. However when you dig a little deeper into the report you can see that the reality is nowhere near what the headlines, or even the report itself, would make you believe. Here are four key facts to know about Dusseault’s latest study..."
- 1613 - [NA] - Society of Petroleum Engineers, Poduction & Operations, George E. King and Daniel E. King - "Environmental Risk Arising From Well-Construction Failure—Differences Between Barrier and Well Failure, and Estimates of Failure Frequency Across Common Well Types, Locations, and Well Age"
"Do oil and gas wells leak to the environment? This paper will show the great majority of wells do not pollute. The purpose of this paper is to explain basic concepts of well construction and illustrate differences between single-barrier failure in multiple- barrier well design and outright well-integrity failure that could lead to pollution by use of published investigations and reviews from data sets of more than 600,000 wells worldwide."